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How Frequently are Articles in Predatory Open Access Journals Cited (Papers: Bo-Christer Björk, et al | December 2019)

Published/Released on December 21, 2019 | Posted by Admin on March 24, 2020 | Keywords: , ,

Predatory journals are Open Access journals of highly questionable scientific quality. Such journals pretend to use peer review for quality assurance, and spam academics with requests for submissions, in order to collect author payments. In recent years predatory journals have received a lot of negative media. While much has... More

Predatory journals are Open Access journals of highly questionable scientific quality. Such journals pretend to use peer review for quality assurance, and spam academics with requests for submissions, in order to collect author payments. In recent years predatory journals have received a lot of negative media. While much has been said about the harm that such journals cause to academic publishing in general, an overlooked aspect is how much articles in such journals are actually read and in particular cited, that is if they have any significant impact on the research in their fields. Other studies have already demonstrated that only some of the articles in predatory journals contain faulty and directly harmful results, while a lot of the articles present mediocre and poorly reported studies. We studied citation statistics over a five-year period in Google Scholar for 250 random articles published in such journals in 2014, and found an average of 2,6 citations per article and that 60 % of the articles had no citations at all. For comparison a random sample of articles published in the approximately 25,000 peer reviewed journals included in the Scopus index had an average of 18,1 citations in the same period with only 9 % receiving no citations. We conclude that articles published in predatory journals have little scientific impact.

Björk, BC, Sari, Kanto-Karvonen & Harviainen, J. T. (2019) How Frequently are Articles in Predatory Open Access Journals Cited. Open Access: https://arxiv.org/abs/1912.10228

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On the Willingness to Report and the Consequences of Reporting Research Misconduct: The Role of Power Relations (Papers: Serge P. J. M. Horbach, et al | February 2020)

Published/Released on February 26, 2020 | Posted by Admin on March 11, 2020 | Keywords: , , ,

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Informed consent in international normative texts and biobanking policies: Seeking the boundaries of broad consent (Papers: Palmira Granados Moreno and Yann Joly | 2016)

Published/Released on January 14, 2016 | Posted by Admin on March 11, 2020 | Keywords: , , , , , , , , ,

Abstract With the progress in bioinformatics, genomics, and epidemiology, biobanks, as repositories of populations’ biological samples as well as of personal and medical information, are becoming an essential research tool. Despite the potential benefits biobanks may bring and the options presented by some of the current... More

Abstract With the progress in bioinformatics, genomics, and epidemiology, biobanks, as repositories of populations’ biological samples as well as of personal and medical information, are becoming an essential research tool. Despite the potential benefits biobanks may bring and the options presented by some of the current biobanks’ consent policies, there remain ethical concerns regarding the autonomy and dignity of research participants if consent is not fully informed as dictated in the terms of traditional informed consent. This article aims at providing an overview of the approaches taken by the main international norms with respect to informed and broad consent and how well these norms are integrated by biobanks or biobank consortia. We conclude that broad consent could be an important tool to achieve the benefits of large-scale biobanks projects. If it is to be accepted, its regulation and implementation need to be mindful of the participant’s dignity and autonomy and sensitive to the need for international coherence and harmonization. Keywords Broad consent, comparative analysis of informed consent practices in international biobanks, international biobanks, international biobanks informed consent policies, international biobanks informed consent regulations

Moreno, P.G. and Joly, Y (2016) Informed consent in international normative texts and biobanking policies: Seeking the boundaries of broad consent.  Medical Law International.  7(35) https://doi.org/10.1177/0968533215626773 Publisher: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0968533215626773

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When medical information comes from Nazi atrocities (Papers: Susan E Mackinnon | January 2020)

The nerve surgeon Susan Mackinnon discovered that an old but precise textbook she relied on was created by a Viennese anatomist who had dissected Hitler’s victims to produce his detailed illustrations. Should we still be using the illustrations, she asks I first met the Atlas of... More

The nerve surgeon Susan Mackinnon discovered that an old but precise textbook she relied on was created by a Viennese anatomist who had dissected Hitler’s victims to produce his detailed illustrations. Should we still be using the illustrations, she asks I first met the Atlas of Topographical and Applied Human Anatomy1 in 1982, when I was 32, during my hand fellowship at the Curtis National Hand Center in Baltimore. The atlas became my dissection partner during the many long hours spent in the anatomy laboratory at Johns Hopkins Hospital and later at the University of Toronto. [colored_box]For several years, I knew the Pernkopf atlas (named after its author, Eduard Pernkopf, chair of anatomy and president of the University of Vienna) only as a unique and valued piece of science and art. However, in the late 1980s, I came across essays by Gerald Weissman, an Austrian born US physician-scientist at New York University, and David Williams, a medical illustrator of Purdue University, Indiana, exposing the origin of my dissection partner,23 calling it the “atlas of the Shoah,” derived during the Holocaust. . Once I, a gentile, came to know the truth of its origin, my attitude changed. I secured the atlas in my operative room locker, with printed copies of Weissman’s and Williams’s essays slipped into the atlas as a marker to anyone who might use it and a warning to “enter with caution.” . However, having already spent many years with the atlas, still the most detailed anatomy book I’ve ever seen, I continued to feel the need to refer to it occasionally for the sake of improving my patients’ surgical outcomes. Several times a month, while operating, I would struggle with the anatomical nuances of nerve pathways. The atlas showed me the way—an exact and safe surgical approach to the … .

Mackinnon, S. E. (2020) When medical information comes from Nazi atrocities BMJ 368:l7075 Publisher: https://www.bmj.com/content/368/bmj.l7075

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A randomized trial of a lab-embedded discourse intervention to improve research ethics – PNAS ( Dena K. Plemmons, et al | January 2020)

Published/Released on January 09, 2020 | Posted by Admin on March 4, 2020 | Keywords: , , , , , , , ,

Significance The ethical practice of research requires researchers to give reasons and justifications for their actions, both to the other members of their research team as well as to external audiences. We developed a project-based training curriculum intended to make ethics discourse a routine practice in... More

Significance The ethical practice of research requires researchers to give reasons and justifications for their actions, both to the other members of their research team as well as to external audiences. We developed a project-based training curriculum intended to make ethics discourse a routine practice in university science and engineering laboratories. Here, we report the results of a randomized control trial implemented among science and engineering laboratories in two research-intensive institutions. We demonstrate that, compared with the control laboratories, treatment laboratory members perceived improvements in the quality of discourse on research ethics within their laboratories as well as enhanced awareness of the relevance and reasons for that discourse for their work as measured in surveys administered 4 mo after the intervention. Abstract [colored_box]We report a randomized trial of a research ethics training intervention designed to enhance ethics communication in university science and engineering laboratories, focusing specifically on authorship and data management. The intervention is a project-based research ethics curriculum that was designed to enhance the ability of science and engineering research laboratory members to engage in reason giving and interpersonal communication necessary for ethical practice. The randomized trial was fielded in active faculty-led laboratories at two US research-intensive institutions. Here, we show that laboratory members perceived improvements in the quality of discourse on research ethics within their laboratories and enhanced awareness of the relevance and reasons for that discourse for their work as measured by a survey administered over 4 mo after the intervention. This training represents a paradigm shift compared with more typical module-based or classroom ethics instruction that is divorced from the everyday workflow and practices within laboratories and is designed to cultivate a campus culture of ethical science and engineering research in the very work settings where laboratory members interact. . Keywords research ethics, randomized trial, authorship, data management

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Taiwanese Researchers’ Perceptions of Questionable Authorship Practices: An Exploratory Study (Papers: Sophia Jui-An Pan & Chien Chou | January 2020)

Published/Released on January 24, 2020 | Posted by Admin on February 28, 2020 | Keywords: , , , , ,

Abstract In 2014, SAGE Publications retracted 60 articles authored by Taiwanese researchers due to suspected peer-review fraud. This scandal led to the resignation of the Minister of Education at the time since he coauthored several retracted works. Issues regarding the lack of transparent decision-making processes regarding... More

Abstract In 2014, SAGE Publications retracted 60 articles authored by Taiwanese researchers due to suspected peer-review fraud. This scandal led to the resignation of the Minister of Education at the time since he coauthored several retracted works. Issues regarding the lack of transparent decision-making processes regarding authorship were further disclosed. Motivated by the scandal, we believe that this is one of the first empirical studies of questionable authorship practices (QAPs) in East Asian academia; we investigate Taiwanese researchers’ perceptions of QAPs. To meet this purpose, a self-reported survey was developed. Four hundred and three local researchers, including research faculty (e.g., professors), postdoctoral researchers, and Ph.D. students, participated in the survey. Four major findings resulted. First, the underlying causes of Taiwanese doctoral students’ engagement in QAPs were attributable to their desire to achieve particular academic-related successes and their feeling of reciprocal obligation to support other researchers. Second, the underlying motives for Taiwanese research associates’ (i.e., research faculty and postdoctoral fellows) engagement in QAPs were attributable to their attempts to achieve particular career successes and of the desire to consolidate their professional networks. Third, the participants generally agreed that QAPs had a long history among local academics but were rarely reported. Fourth, participants’ backgrounds (i.e., research discipline, academic rank, and type of affiliations) had significant effects on their responses regarding particular authorship issues; however, their gender did not have a significant effect. QAPs are a critical issue in Taiwanese academia; therefore, we discussed the implications of the current findings including subsequent instruction and future research.

Pan, S.J. & Chou, C. (2020) Taiwanese Researchers’ Perceptions of Questionable Authorship Practices: An Exploratory Study. Science and Engineering Ethics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-020-00180-x https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11948-020-00180-x

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Defining predatory journals and responding to the threat they pose: a modified Delphi consensus process (Papers: Samantha Cukier, et al | February 2020)

Published/Released on February 09, 2020 | Posted by Admin on February 18, 2020 | Keywords: , , , , ,

Abstract Objective To conduct a Delphi survey informing a consensus definition of predatory journals and publishers. Design This is a modified three-round Delphi survey delivered online for the first two rounds and in-person for the third round. Questions encompassed three themes: (1) predatory... More

Abstract Objective To conduct a Delphi survey informing a consensus definition of predatory journals and publishers. Design This is a modified three-round Delphi survey delivered online for the first two rounds and in-person for the third round. Questions encompassed three themes: (1) predatory journal definition; (2) educational outreach and policy initiatives on predatory publishing; and (3) developing technological solutions to stop submissions to predatory journals and other low-quality journals. Participants [colored_box]Through snowball and purposive sampling of targeted experts, we identified 45 noted experts in predatory journals and journalology. The international group included funders, academics and representatives of academic institutions, librarians and information scientists, policy makers, journal editors, publishers, researchers involved in studying predatory journals and legitimate journals, and patient partners. In addition, 198 authors of articles discussing predatory journals were invited to participate in round 1. . Results A total of 115 individuals (107 in round 1 and 45 in rounds 2 and 3) completed the survey on predatory journals and publishers. We reached consensus on 18 items out of a total of 33 to be included in a consensus definition of predatory journals and publishers. We came to consensus on educational outreach and policy initiatives on which to focus, including the development of a single checklist to detect predatory journals and publishers, and public funding to support research in this general area. We identified technological solutions to address the problem: a ‘one-stop-shop’ website to consolidate information on the topic and a ‘predatory journal research observatory’ to identify ongoing research and analysis about predatory journals/publishers. . Conclusions In bringing together an international group of diverse stakeholders, we were able to use a modified Delphi process to inform the development of a definition of predatory journals and publishers. This definition will help institutions, funders and other stakeholders generate practical guidance on avoiding predatory journals and publishers.

Cukier S., Lalu M., Bryson GL., Cobey,. K. D., Grudniewicz, A. &  Moher, D (2020) Defining predatory journals and responding to the threat they pose: a modified Delphi consensus process. BMJ Open 10:e035561. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-035561 Publisher (Open Access): https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/10/2/e035561.full

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Ethical Procedures? A Critical Intervention: The sacred, the profane, and the planet (Papers: Keyan Tomaselli | 2017))

Published/Released on January 01, 2016 | Posted by Admin on February 13, 2020 | Keywords: , , , , , , , , , ,

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Should research misconduct be criminalized? (Papers: Rafael Dal-Ré, et al | January 2020)

Published/Released on January 16, 2020 | Posted by Admin on January 29, 2020 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

Abstract [colored_box]For more than 25 years, research misconduct (research fraud) is defined as fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism (FFP)—although other research misbehaviors have been also added in codes of conduct and legislations. A critical issue in deciding whether research misconduct should be subject to criminal law is... More

Abstract [colored_box]For more than 25 years, research misconduct (research fraud) is defined as fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism (FFP)—although other research misbehaviors have been also added in codes of conduct and legislations. A critical issue in deciding whether research misconduct should be subject to criminal law is its definition, because not all behaviors labeled as research misconduct qualifies as serious crime. But assuming that all FFP is fraud and all non-FFP not is far from obvious. In addition, new research misbehaviors have recently been described, such as prolific authorship, and fake peer review, or boosted such as duplication of images. The scientific community has been largely successful in keeping criminal law away from the cases of research misconduct. Alleged cases of research misconduct are usually looked into by committees of scientists usually from the same institution or university of the suspected offender in a process that often lacks transparency. Few countries have or plan to introduce independent bodies to address research misconduct; so for the coming years, most universities and research institutions will continue handling alleged research misconduct cases with their own procedures. A global operationalization of research misconduct with clear boundaries and clear criteria would be helpful. There is room for improvement in reaching global clarity on what research misconduct is, how allegations should be handled, and which sanctions are appropriate. . Keywords Research misconduct, scientific misconduct, fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, research fraud

Dal-Ré, R., Bouter, L. M., Cuijpers, P., Gluud, C., & Holm, S. (2020) Should research misconduct be criminalized? Research Ethics. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747016119898400 Publisher (Open Access): https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1747016119898400

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Quality of reports of investigations of research integrity by academic institutions (Papers: Andrew Grey, et al | February 2019)

Published/Released on February 19, 2019 | Posted by Admin on January 27, 2020 | Keywords: , , ,

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Abstract Background Academic institutions play important roles in protecting and preserving research integrity. Concerns have been expressed about the objectivity, adequacy and transparency of institutional investigations of potentially compromised research integrity. We assessed the reports provided to us of investigations by three academic institutions of a large body of overlapping research with potentially compromised integrity. Methods In 2017, we raised concerns with four academic institutions about the integrity of > 200 publications co-authored by an overlapping set of researchers. Each institution initiated an investigation. By November 2018, three had reported to us the results of their investigations, but only one report was publicly available. Two investigators independently assessed each available report using a published 26-item checklist designed to determine the quality and adequacy of institutional investigations of research integrity. Each assessor recorded additional comments ad hoc. Results Concerns raised with the institutions were overlapping, wide-ranging and included those which were both general and publication-specific. The number of potentially affected publications at individual institutions ranged from 34 to 200. The duration of investigation by the three institutions which provided reports was 8–17 months. These investigations covered 14%, 15% and 77%, respectively, of potentially affected publications. Between-assessor agreement using the quality checklist was 0.68, 0.72 and 0.65 for each report. Only 4/78 individual checklist items were addressed adequately: a further 14 could not be assessed. Each report was graded inadequate overall. Reports failed to address publication-specific concerns and focussed more strongly on determining research misconduct than evaluating the integrity of publications. Conclusions Our analyses identify important deficiencies in the quality and reporting of institutional investigation of concerns about the integrity of a large body of research reported by an overlapping set of researchers. They reinforce disquiet about the ability of institutions to rigorously and objectively oversee integrity of research conducted by their own employees. Keywords Research Integrity, Institution, Misconduct, Investigation

Grey, A., Bolland, M., Gamble, Avenell, A. (2019) Quality of reports of investigations of research integrity by academic institutions. Research Integrity and Peer Review 4(3). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41073-019-0062-x Publisher (Open Access): https://researchintegrityjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41073-019-0062-x

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There’s ‘consent’ and then there’s consent: Mobilising Māori and Indigenous research ethics to problematise the western biomedical model (Papers: Kiri West-McGruer | January 2020)

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Research Ethics in an Unethical World: The Politics and Morality of Engaged Research (Claudio Morrison and Devi Sacchetto | October 2017)

Abstract This article explores ethical dilemmas in researching the world of work. Recent contributions to Work, employment and society have highlighted challenges for engaged research. Based on the emancipatory epistemologies of Bourdieu, Gramsci and Burawoy, the authors examine moral challenges in workplace fieldwork, question the assumptions... More

Abstract This article explores ethical dilemmas in researching the world of work. Recent contributions to Work, employment and society have highlighted challenges for engaged research. Based on the emancipatory epistemologies of Bourdieu, Gramsci and Burawoy, the authors examine moral challenges in workplace fieldwork, question the assumptions of mainstream ethics discourses and seek to identify an alternative approach. Instead of an ethics premised on a priori, universal precepts that treasure academic neutrality, this article recognises a morality that responds to the social context of research with participation and commitment. The reflection in this study is based on fieldwork conducted in the former Soviet Union. Transformation societies present challenges to participatory ethnography but simultaneously provide considerable opportunities for developing an ethics of truth. An approach that can guide engaged researchers through social conflict’s ‘messy’ reality should hinge on loyalty to the emancipation struggles of those engaged in it. Keywords business and management research, ethics, materialism, post-socialism, qualitative fieldwork, workplace morality

Morrison, C., & Sacchetto, D. (2018). Research Ethics in an Unethical World: The Politics and Morality of Engaged Research. Work, Employment and Society, 32(6), 1118–1129. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017017726947 Publisher: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0950017017726947#articleCitationDownloadContainer

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Misrepresenting “Usual Care” in Research: An Ethical and Scientific Error (Papers: Ruth Macklin, Charles Natanson | January 2020)

Abstract Comparative effectiveness studies, referred to here as "usual-care" trials, seek to compare current medical practices for the same medical condition. Such studies are presumed to be safe and involve only minimal risks. However, that presumption may be flawed if the trial design contains "unusual" care,... More

Abstract Comparative effectiveness studies, referred to here as "usual-care" trials, seek to compare current medical practices for the same medical condition. Such studies are presumed to be safe and involve only minimal risks. However, that presumption may be flawed if the trial design contains "unusual" care, resulting in potential risks to subjects and inaccurately informed consent. Three case studies described here did not rely on clinical evidence to ascertain contemporaneous practice. As a result, the investigators drew inaccurate conclusions, misinformed research participants, and subjects' safety was compromised. Before approving usual-care protocols, IRBs and scientific review committees should evaluate the quality and completeness of information documenting usual-care practices. Guidance from governmental oversight agencies regarding evidence-based documentation of current clinical practice could prevent similar occurrences in future usual-care trials. Accurate information is necessary to ensure that trials comply with government regulations that require minimizing research risks to subjects and accurate informed consent documents. KEYWORDS: Human subjects research; IRB (Institutional Review Board); informed consent; risk/benefit analysis

Macklin, R. & Natanson, C. (2019) Misrepresenting “Usual Care” in Research: An Ethical and Scientific Error. Americaan Journal of Bioethics. 20(1):31-39. doi: 10.1080/15265161.2019.1687777. Publisher: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15265161.2019.1687777

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Reasoning “Uncharted Territory”: Notions of Expertise Within Ethics Review Panels Assessing Research Use of Social Media (Papers: Chelsea Sellers, et al | February 2019 )

Published/Released on February 14, 2019 | Posted by Admin on January 5, 2020 | Keywords: , , ,

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(UK) King’s College London’s enquiry into Hans J Eysenck’s ‘Unsafe’ publications must be properly completed (Papers: David F Marks & Roderick D. Buchanan & Roderick D. Buchanan | December 2019)

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International Policy Frameworks for Consent in Minimal-risk Pragmatic Trials (Papers: Tanya J. Symons, et al | November 2019)

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A consensus-based transparency checklist (Papers: Balazs Aczel, et al | December 2019)

Published/Released on December 02, 2019 | Posted by Admin on December 11, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , ,

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Disgraced tracheal transplant surgeon is handed 16 month prison sentence in Italy (Papers: Michael Day | November 2019)

Disgraced surgeon Paolo Macchiarini, who faked research relating to dangerous and largely discredited tracheal transplants, has been handed a 16 month prison sentence in Italy for forging documents and abuse of office. Macchiarini made headlines around the world after claiming a major breakthrough for patients with failing windpipes, by “seeding”... More

Disgraced surgeon Paolo Macchiarini, who faked research relating to dangerous and largely discredited tracheal transplants, has been handed a 16 month prison sentence in Italy for forging documents and abuse of office. Macchiarini made headlines around the world after claiming a major breakthrough for patients with failing windpipes, by “seeding” an artificial scaffold with a patient’s own stem cells, to generate a functioning trachea. But excitement at the prospect of a genuine medical advance turned to scandal when it emerged that Macchiarini had falsified results and misled hospital authorities regarding the health of those receiving the experimental procedures. The revelation prompted his research centre, the Karolinska Institute, to eventually disown his …

Day, M. (2019) Disgraced tracheal transplant surgeon is handed 16 month prison sentence in Italy. BMJ. 367:l6676. doi: 10.1136/bmj.l6676. No abstract available. PMID: 31767600 Publisher: https://www.bmj.com/content/367/bmj.l6676

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What’s the Harm? The Coverage of Ethics and Harm Avoidance in Research Methods Textbooks (Papers: Shane Dixon and Linda Quirke | June 2017)

Published/Released on June 02, 2017 | Posted by Admin on December 3, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , , , , ,

Abstract Methods textbooks play a role in socializing a new generation of researchers about ethical research. How do undergraduate social research methods textbooks portray harm, its prevalence, and ways to mitigate harm to participants? We conducted a content analysis of ethics chapters in the 18 highest-selling... More

Abstract Methods textbooks play a role in socializing a new generation of researchers about ethical research. How do undergraduate social research methods textbooks portray harm, its prevalence, and ways to mitigate harm to participants? We conducted a content analysis of ethics chapters in the 18 highest-selling undergraduate textbooks used in sociology research methods courses in the United States and Canada in 2013. We found that experiments are portrayed as the research design most likely to harm participants. Textbooks overwhelmingly referred to high-profile, well-known examples of harmful research. Chapters primarily characterize participants as at risk for psychological and physical harm. Textbooks engage in detailed discussions of how to avoid harm; informed consent figures prominently as an essential way to mitigate risk of harm. We conclude that textbooks promote a procedural rather than nuanced approach to ethics and that content in ethics chapters is out of step with scholarly research in research ethics. Keywords ethics, research methods, textbooks, harm, participants

Dixon, S., & Quirke, L. (2018). What’s the Harm? The Coverage of Ethics and Harm Avoidance in Research Methods Textbooks. Teaching Sociology, 46(1), 12–24. https://doi.org/10.1177/0092055X17711230 Publisher (Open Access): https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0092055X17711230

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Participant understanding and recall of informed consent for induced pluripotent stem cell biobanking (Papers: Tristan McCaughey, et al | 2016)

Published/Released on June 14, 2016 | Posted by Admin on December 1, 2019 | Keywords: , , , ,

Abstract The ability to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has opened new avenues for human disease modelling and therapy. The aim of our study was to determine research participants’ understanding of the information given when donating skin biopsies for the generation of patient-specific iPSCs.... More

Abstract The ability to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has opened new avenues for human disease modelling and therapy. The aim of our study was to determine research participants’ understanding of the information given when donating skin biopsies for the generation of patient-specific iPSCs. A customised 35-item questionnaire based on previous iPSC consent guidelines was sent to participants who had previously donated samples for iPSC research. The questionnaire asked pertinent demographic details, participants' motivation to take part in iPSC research and their attitudes towards related ethical issues. 234 participants were contacted with 141 (60.3 %) complete responses received. The median duration between recruitment and follow-up questioning was 313 days (range 10–573 days). The majority of participants (n = 129, 91.5 %) believed they understood what a stem cell was; however, only 22 (16.1 %) correctly answered questions related to basic stem cell properties. We found no statistically significant difference in responses from participants with different levels of education, or those with a health sciences background. The poor understanding amongst participants of iPSC research is unlikely to be unique to our study and may impact future research if not improved. As such, there is a need to develop an easily understood yet comprehensive consent process to ensure ongoing ethical progress of iPSC biobanking. Keywords Stem cell, Informed consent, HeLa, Biobank

McCaughey T., Chen C.Y., De Smit E., Rees G., Fenwick E., Kearns L.S., Mackey D.A., MacGregor C., Munsie M., Cook A.L., Pébay A. & Hewitt A.W. (2016) Participant understanding and recall of informed consent for induced pluripotent stem cell biobanking. Cell and Tissue Banking. 17: 449. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10561-016-9563-8 Publisher: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10561-016-9563-8
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Value pluralism in research integrity (Papers: Rik Peels, et al | August 2019)

Abstract Both scientists and society at large have rightfully become increasingly concerned about research integrity in recent decades. In response, codes of conduct for research have been developed and elaborated. We show that these codes contain substantial... More

Abstract Both scientists and society at large have rightfully become increasingly concerned about research integrity in recent decades. In response, codes of conduct for research have been developed and elaborated. We show that these codes contain substantial pluralism. First, there is metaphysical pluralism in that codes include values, norms, and virtues. Second, there is axiological pluralism, because there are different categories of values, norms, and virtues: epistemic, moral, professional, social, and legal. Within and between these different categories, norms can be incommensurable or incompatible. Codes of conduct typically do not specify how to handle situations where different norms pull in different directions. We review some attempts to develop an ordering of different sorts of norm violations based on a common measure for their seriousness. We argue that they all fail to give adequate guidance for resolving cases of incommensurable and conflicting norms. We conclude that value pluralism is inherent to codes of conduct in research integrity. The application of codes needs careful reasoning and judgment together with an intellectually humble attitude that acknowledges the inevitability of value pluralism.

Peels, R., Ridder, J., Haven, T. & Bouter, L. (2019) Value pluralism in research integrity. Research Integrity and Peer Review 4, 18 doi:10.1186/s41073-019-0076-4 Publisher (Open Access): https://researchintegrityjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41073-019-0076-4

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Examination of CIs in health and medical journals from 1976 to 2019: an observational study (Papers: Adrian Gerard Barnett, Jonathan D Wren | November 2019)

Published/Released on November 21, 2019 | Posted by Admin on November 26, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , , , , ,

Abstract Objectives Previous research has shown clear biases in the distribution of published p values, with an excess below the 0.05 threshold due to a combination of p-hacking and publication bias. We aimed to examine the bias for statistical significance using published confidence... More

Abstract Objectives Previous research has shown clear biases in the distribution of published p values, with an excess below the 0.05 threshold due to a combination of p-hacking and publication bias. We aimed to examine the bias for statistical significance using published confidence intervals. Design Observational study. Setting Papers published in Medline since 1976. Participants Over 968 000 confidence intervals extracted from abstracts and over 350 000 intervals extracted from the full-text. Outcome measures Cumulative distributions of lower and upper confidence interval limits for ratio estimates. Results We found an excess of statistically significant results with a glut of lower intervals just above one and upper intervals just below 1. These excesses have not improved in recent years. The excesses did not appear in a set of over 100 000 confidence intervals that were not subject to p-hacking or publication bias. Conclusions The huge excesses of published confidence intervals that are just below the statistically significant threshold are not statistically plausible. Large improvements in research practice are needed to provide more results that better reflect the truth.

Barnett, A.G., Wren, J.D. (2019)  Examination of CIs in health and medical journals from 1976 to 2019: an observational study. 
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Turning the tables: A university league-table based on quality not quantity (Papers: Adrian G. Barnett & David Moher | July 2019)

Published/Released on July 29, 2019 | Posted by Admin on November 8, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , ,

Abstract Background: Universities closely watch international league tables because these tables influence governments, donors and students. Achieving a high ranking in a table, or an annual rise in ranking, allows universities to promote their achievements using an externally validated measure. However, league... More

Abstract Background: Universities closely watch international league tables because these tables influence governments, donors and students. Achieving a high ranking in a table, or an annual rise in ranking, allows universities to promote their achievements using an externally validated measure. However, league tables predominantly reward measures of research output, such as publications and citations, and may therefore be promoting poor research practices by encouraging the “publish or perish” mentality. Methods: We examined whether a league table could be created based on good research practice. We rewarded researchers who cited a reporting guideline, which help researchers report their research completely, accurately and transparently, and were created to reduce the waste of poorly described research. We used the EQUATOR guidelines, which means our tables are mostly relevant to health and medical research. We used Scopus to identify the citations. Results: Our cross-sectional tables for the years 2016 and 2017 included 14,408 papers with 47,876 author affiliations. We ranked universities and included a bootstrap measure of uncertainty. We clustered universities in five similar groups in an effort to avoid over-interpreting small differences in ranks. Conclusions: We believe there is merit in considering more socially responsible criteria for ranking universities, and this could encourage better research practice internationally if such tables become as valued as the current quantity-focused tables. Keywords meta-research, research quality, research reporting, league tables

Barnett, A.G. and Moher D. Turning the tables: A university league-table based on quality not quantity [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]. F1000Research 2019, 8:583 (https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.18453.2) Publisher (Open Access): https://f1000research.com/articles/8-583/v2

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Enhancing the Taxonomies Relating to Academic Integrity and Misconduct (Papers: Loreta Tauginienė, et al | October 2019)

Published/Released on October 08, 2019 | Posted by Admin on October 27, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , , , , , ,

Abstract A clear understanding of terminology is crucial in any academic field. When it is clear that complex interdisciplinary concepts are interpreted differently depending on the academic field, geographical setting or cultural values, it is time to take action. Given this, the Glossary for Academic Integrity,... More

Abstract A clear understanding of terminology is crucial in any academic field. When it is clear that complex interdisciplinary concepts are interpreted differently depending on the academic field, geographical setting or cultural values, it is time to take action. Given this, the Glossary for Academic Integrity, newly developed by the European Network for Academic Integrity project, served as the basis for compiling a comprehensive taxonomy of terms related to academic integrity. Following a rigorous coding exercise, the taxonomy was partitioned into three constituent components – Integrity, Misconduct and Neutral terms. A review of relevant literature sources is included, and the strengths and weaknesses of existing taxonomies are discussed in relation to this new offering. During the creation of these artefacts the authors identified and resolved many differences between their individual interpretative understandings of concepts/terms and the viewpoints of others. It is anticipated that the freely-available glossary and taxonomy will be explored and valued by researchers, teachers, students and the general public alike. Keywords Academic integrity, Academic misconduct, Taxonomy, Research integrity, Research misconduct, Qualitative content analysis, Concept analysis

Tauginienė, L., Gaižauskaitė, I., Razi, S. et al. Enhancing the Taxonomies Relating to Academic Integrity and Misconduct. Journal of Academic Ethics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10805-019-09342-4 Publisher (Open Access): https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10805-019-09342-4
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Why research ethics should add retrospective review (Papers: Angus Dawson, et al | October 2019)

Published/Released on October 10, 2019 | Posted by Admin on October 26, 2019 | Keywords: , , , ,

Abstract Research ethics is an integral part of research, especially that involving human subjects. However, concerns have been expressed that research ethics has come to be seen as a procedural concern focused on a few well-established ethical issues that researchers need to address to obtain ethical... More

Abstract Research ethics is an integral part of research, especially that involving human subjects. However, concerns have been expressed that research ethics has come to be seen as a procedural concern focused on a few well-established ethical issues that researchers need to address to obtain ethical approval to begin their research. While such prospective review of research is important, we argue that it is not sufficient to address all aspects of research ethics. We propose retrospective review as an important complement to prospective review. We offer two arguments to support our claim that prospective review is insufficient. First, as currently practiced, research ethics has become for some a ‘tick box’ exercise to get over the ‘hurdle’ of ethics approval. This fails to capture much of what is important in ethics and does not promote careful reflection on the ethical issues involved. Second, the current approach tends to be rules-based and we argue that research ethics should go beyond this to develop people’s capacity to be sensitive to the relevant moral features of their research, their ethical decision-making skills and their integrity. Retrospective review of a project’s ethical issues, and how they were addressed, could help to achieve those aims better. We believe that a broad range of stakeholders should be involved in such retrospective review, including representatives of ethics committees, participating communities and those involved in the research. All stakeholders could then learn from others’ perspectives and experiences. An open and transparent assessment of research could help to promote trust and understanding between stakeholders, as well as identifying areas of agreement and disagreement and how these can be built upon or addressed. Retrospective review also has the potential to promote critical reflection on ethics and help to develop ethical sensitivity and integrity within the research team. Demonstrating this would take empirical evidence and we suggest that any such initiatives should be accompanied by research into their effectiveness. Our article concludes with a discussion of some possible objections to our proposal, and an invitation to further debate and discussion.

Dawson, A., Lignou, S., Siriwardhana, C. and O’Mathúna, D.P. (2019) Why research ethics should add retrospective review. BMC Medical Ethics 20: 68 Publisher (Open Access): https://bmcmedethics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12910-019-0399-1

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Can dynamic consent facilitate the protection of biomedical big data in biobanking in Malaysia? (Papers: Mohammad Firdaus Abdul Aziz & Aimi Nadia Mohd Yusof | May 2019)

Abstract As with many other countries, Malaysia is also developing and promoting biomedical research to increase the understanding of human diseases and possible interventions. To facilitate this development, there is a significant growth of biobanks in the country to ensure continuous collection of biological samples for... More

Abstract As with many other countries, Malaysia is also developing and promoting biomedical research to increase the understanding of human diseases and possible interventions. To facilitate this development, there is a significant growth of biobanks in the country to ensure continuous collection of biological samples for future research, which contain extremely important personal information and health data of the participants involved. Given the vast amount of samples and data accumulated by biobanks, they can be considered as reservoirs of precious biomedical big data. It is therefore imperative for biobanks to have in place regulatory measures to ensure ethical use of the biomedical big data. Malaysia has yet to introduce specific legislation for the field of biobanking. However, it can be argued that its existing Personal Data Protection Act 2010 (PDPA) has laid down legal principles that can be enforced to protect biomedical big data generated by the biobanks. Consent is a mechanism to enable data subjects to exercise their autonomy by determining how their data can be used and ensure compliance with legal principles. However, there are two main concerns surrounding the current practice of consent in biomedical big data in Malaysia. First, it is uncertain that the current practice would be able to respect the underlying notion of autonomy, and second, it is not in accordance with the legal principles of the PDPA. Scholars have deliberated on different strategies of informed consent, and a more interactive approach has recently been introduced: dynamic consent. It is argued that a dynamic consent approach would be able to address these concerns. Keywords Biobanking, Autonomy, Data protection, Informed consent, Dynamic consent

Abdul Aziz, Mohammad Firdaus, and Aimi Nadia Mohd Yusof. 2019. Can dynamic consent facilitate the protection of biomedical big data in biobanking in Malaysia? Asian Bioethics Review 11 (2) 1-14.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s41649-019-00086-2. Publisher: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs41649-019-00086-2
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Advancing research integrity: a programme to embed good practice in Africa (Papers: Anke Rohwer, et al | 2019)

Published/Released on August 13, 2019 | Posted by Admin on October 18, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , ,

Abstract In Africa, training programmes as well as institutional policies on research integrity are lacking. Institutions have a responsibility to oversee research integrity through various efforts, including policies and training. We developed, implemented and evaluated an institutional approach to promote research integrity at African institutions, comprising... More

Abstract In Africa, training programmes as well as institutional policies on research integrity are lacking. Institutions have a responsibility to oversee research integrity through various efforts, including policies and training. We developed, implemented and evaluated an institutional approach to promote research integrity at African institutions, comprising a workshop for researchers ("bottom-up") and discussions with senior faculty on institutional policies ("top-down"). During the first day, we facilitated a workshop to introduce research integrity and promote best practices with regards to authorship, plagiarism, redundant publication and conflicts of interest. We used a variety of interactive teaching approaches to facilitate learning, including individual and group activities, small group discussions and case-based learning. We met with senior faculty on the following day to provide feedback and insights from the workshop, review current institutional policies and provide examples of what other research groups are doing. We evaluated the process. Participants actively engaged in discussions, recognised the importance of the topic and acknowledged that poor practices occurred at their institution. Discussions with senior researchers resulted in the establishment of a working group tasked with developing a publication policy for the institution. Our approach kick-started conversations on research integrity at institutions. There is a need for continued discussions, integrated training programmes and implementation of institutional policies and guidelines to promote good practices. Keywords: Research integrity, Africa, institution, publication policy, workshop

Rohwer, A., Wager, E. & Young, T. (2019). Advancing research integrity: a programme to embed good practice in Africa. Pan African Medical Journal. 33. 10.11604/pamj.2019.33.298.17008. Publisher (Open Access): http://www.panafrican-med-journal.com/content/article/33/298/full/

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Personality and fatal diseases: Revisiting a scientific scandal (Papers: Anthony J Pelosi | February 2019)

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Fighting Citation Pollution — The Challenge of Detecting Fraudulent Journals in Works Cited – Scholarly Kitchen ( Lisa Janicke Hinchliffe and Michael Clarke | September 2019)

Published/Released on October 25, 2019 | Posted by Admin on October 7, 2019 | Keywords: , , , ,

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Checklists to Detect Potential Predatory Biomedical Journals: A Systematic Review (Papers: Samantha Cukier, et al | Preprint September 2019)

Published/Released on September 16, 2019 | Posted by Admin on September 23, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

Abstract

Background: We believe there is a large number of checklists to help authors detect predatory journals. It is uncertain whether these checklists contain similar content.

Purpose: Perform a systematic review to identify checklists to detect... More

Abstract

Background: We believe there is a large number of checklists to help authors detect predatory journals. It is uncertain whether these checklists contain similar content.

Purpose: Perform a systematic review to identify checklists to detect potential predatory journals and to examine their content and measurement properties. Data Sources: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science and Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (January 2012 to November 2018), university library websites (January 2019), YouTube (January 2019). Study Selection: Original checklists used to detect potential predatory journals published in English, French or Portuguese, with instructions in point form, bullet form, tabular format or listed items, not including lists or guidance on recognizing "legitimate" or "trustworthy" journals. Data Extraction: Pairs of reviewers independently extracted study data and assessed checklist quality and a third reviewer resolved conflicts. Data Synthesis: Of 1528 records screened, 93 met our inclusion criteria. The majority of included checklists were in English (n = 90, 97%), could be completed in fewer than five minutes (n = 68, 73%), had an average of 11 items, which were not weighted (n = 91, 98%), did not include qualitative guidance (n = 78, 84%) or quantitative guidance (n = 91, 98%), were not evidence-based (n = 90, 97%) and covered a mean of four (of six) thematic categories. Only three met our criteria for being evidence-based. Limitations: Limited languages and years of publication, searching other media. Conclusions: There is a plethora of published checklists that may overwhelm authors looking to efficiently guard against publishing in predatory journals. The similarity in checklists could lead to the creation of evidence-based tools serving authors from all disciplines.

Cukier, S., Helal, L., Rice, D.B., Pupkaite, J., Ahmadzai, N., Wilson, M., Skidmore, B., Lalu, M., Moher, D. (Preprint 2019) Checklists to Detect Potential Predatory Biomedical Journals: A Systematic Review. medRxiv. 19005728; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/19005728 Publisher: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/19005728v1

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(China) A 10-year follow up of publishing ethics in China: what is new and what is unchanged (Papers: Katrina A. Bramstedt & Jun Xu | September 2019)

Abstract Background Organ donation and transplantation in China are ethically complex due to questionable informed consent and the use of prisoners as donors. Publishing works from China can be problematic. The objective of this study was to perform a 10-year follow up on... More

Abstract Background Organ donation and transplantation in China are ethically complex due to questionable informed consent and the use of prisoners as donors. Publishing works from China can be problematic. The objective of this study was to perform a 10-year follow up on Chinese journals active in donation and transplant publishing regarding the evolution of their publishing guidelines. Methods Eleven Chinese journals were analyzed for 7 properties: (1) ethics committee approval; (2) procedure consent; (3) publishing consent; (4) authorship criteria; (5) conflict of interest; (6) duplicate publication; and (7) data integrity. Results were compared with our 2008 study data. Additionally, open access status, impact factor, and MEDLINE-indexing were explored. Results Most journals heightened the ethical requirements for publishing, compared to the results of 2008. All 11 now require their published manuscripts to have data integrity. Ten of 11 require ethics committee approval and informed consent for the publication of research studies, whereas in the original study only 2 journals evidenced these requirements. Nine of 11 have criteria for authorship, require conflict of interest disclosure, and forbid duplicate publishing. None of the journals have a policy to exclude data that was obtained from unethical organ donation practices. Nine of 11 journals are MEDLINE-indexed but only 2 are open-access. Conclusions Most journals have improved their general ethical publishing requirements but none address unethical organ donation practices. Keywords: China; Informed consent; Organ donation; Publishing; Research ethics; Research integrity

Bramstedt, K. and Xu, J. (20019) (China) A 10-year follow up of publishing ethics in China: what is new and what is unchanged. Research Integrity and Peer Review 4(17) https://doi.org/10.1186/s41073-019-0077-3. Publisher (Open Access): https://researchintegrityjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41073-019-0077-3

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Implementation of a responsible conduct of research education program at Duke University School of Medicine (Papers: Christian Simon, et al 02 June 2019)

Published/Released on June 02, 2019 | Posted by Admin on September 2, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , ,

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Enhancing ethics review of social and behavioral research: developing a review template in Ethiopia (Papers: Liya Wassie, et al | August 2019)

Abstract Background: Africa is increasingly becoming an important region for health research, mainly due to its heavy burden of disease, socioeconomic challenges, and inadequate health facilities. Regulatory capacities, in terms of ethical review processes, are also generally weak. The ethical assessment of social... More

Abstract Background: Africa is increasingly becoming an important region for health research, mainly due to its heavy burden of disease, socioeconomic challenges, and inadequate health facilities. Regulatory capacities, in terms of ethical review processes, are also generally weak. The ethical assessment of social and behavioral research is relatively neglected compared to the review of biomedical and clinical studies, which led us to develop an ethics review assessment tool for use in the review of social and behavioral research in Ethiopia, which could potentially be of value in low- and middle-income settings. Methods: Initially, we did a comprehensive literature review on principles, guidelines, and practices of research ethics, on social and behavioral studies, from which we extracted query terms to explore the opinions of selected key informants and focus groups in Ethiopia. The discussants and informants were selected using a convenience sampling method to evaluate an ethics review template, which integrated issues that commonly arise in social and behavioral studies. Finally, we directly solicited opinions from the discussants about the desirability, feasibility, acceptability, and relevance of the ethics review assessment tool and used the resulting data to refine our initial draft. Results and conclusion: Although the same basic ethics principles govern all research studies, social and behavioral research have some disciplinary particularities that may require reviewers to exercise a different orientation of ethical attention in some cases. Using a qualitative approach, we developed a review assessment tool that could potentially be useful to raise awareness, focus attention, and strengthen the review of social and behavioral studies by ethics review committees, particularly in settings without a long-standing tradition of reviewing such research. This process also exposed some areas where further capacity building and discussion of ethical issues may be necessary among stakeholders in the review of social and behavioral research. Keywords Behavioral, social, qualitative, biomedical research, ethics review, low and middle income

Liya Wassie, Senkenesh Gebre-Mariam, Geremew Terekegne et al. (2019) Enhancing ethics review of social and behavioural research: Developing a review template in Ethiopia. Research Ethics 15(4) 1–23. Publisher (Open Access): https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1747016119865731

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Transparent Attribution of Contributions to Research: Aligning Guidelines to Real-Life Practices (Papers: Valerie Matarese and Karen Shashok | April 2019)

Published/Released on April 03, 2019 | Posted by Admin on August 28, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , ,

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Open consent, biobanking and data protection law: can open consent be ‘informed’ under the forthcoming data protection regulation? (Papers: Dara Hallinan & Michael Friedewald | 2015)

Published/Released on January 24, 2015 | Posted by Admin on August 22, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , , , , , , ,

Abstract This article focuses on whether a certain form of consent used by biobanks – open consent – is compatible with the Proposed Data Protection Regulation. In an open consent procedure, the biobank requests consent once from the data subject for all future research uses of... More

Abstract This article focuses on whether a certain form of consent used by biobanks – open consent – is compatible with the Proposed Data Protection Regulation. In an open consent procedure, the biobank requests consent once from the data subject for all future research uses of genetic material and data. However, as biobanks process personal data, they must comply with data protection law. Data protection law is currently undergoing reform. The Proposed Data Protection Regulation is the culmination of this reform and, if voted into law, will constitute a new legal framework for biobanking. The Regulation puts strict conditions on consent – in particular relating to information which must be given to the data subject. It seems clear that open consent cannot meet these requirements. 4 categories of information cannot be provided with adequate specificity: purpose, recipient, possible third country transfers, data collected. However, whilst open consent cannot meet the formal requirements laid out by the Regulation, this is not to say that these requirements are substantially undebateable. Two arguments could be put forward suggesting the applicable consent requirements should be rethought. First, from policy documents regarding the drafting process, it seems that the informational requirements in the Regulation are so strict in order to protect the data subject from risks inherent in the use of the consent mechanism in a certain context – exemplified by the online context. There are substantial differences between this context and the biobanking context. Arguably, a consent transaction in the biobanking does not present the same type of risk to the data subject. If the risks are different, then perhaps there are also grounds for a reconsideration of consent requirements? Second, an argument can be made that the legislator drafted the Regulation based on certain assumptions as to the nature of ‘data’. The authors argue that these assumptions are difficult to apply to genetic data and accordingly a different approach to consent might be preferable. Such an approach might be more open consent friendly.

Hallinan, D. and M. Friedewald (2015). "Open consent, biobanking and data protection law: can open consent be ‘informed’ under the forthcoming data protection regulation?" Life Sciences, Society and Policy 11(1): 1. Publisher (Open Access): https://lsspjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40504-014-0020-9

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More detailed guidance on the inclusion/exclusion of retracted articles in systematic reviews is needed (Papers: July 2019)

Published/Released on July 12, 2019 | Posted by Admin on August 20, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , ,

[colored_box]There are currently no clear guidelines on how to proceed when a retracted article is selected in the systematic review process. The Cochrane handbook provides information only on how to identify retracted articles within the scientific literature, instead of clear guidance and criteria for inclusion in the systematic review... More

[colored_box]There are currently no clear guidelines on how to proceed when a retracted article is selected in the systematic review process. The Cochrane handbook provides information only on how to identify retracted articles within the scientific literature, instead of clear guidance and criteria for inclusion in the systematic review or not [1]. Other guidelines for conducting systematic reviews do not address this topic [2,3]. Common sense would indicate the exclusion from a systematic review of a study that was retracted because of faked or unreliable data [4]. .

Faggion, C. M., Jr. "More detailed guidance on the inclusion/exclusion of retracted articles in systematic reviews is needed." Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2019.07.006 Publisher: https://www.jclinepi.com/article/S0895-4356(19)30573-6/abstract

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AMWA–EMWA–ISMPP joint position statement on predatory publishing (Papers: American Medical Writers Association, et al | July 2019)

Published/Released on July 29, 2019 | Posted by Admin on August 12, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , , , ,

The American Medical Writers Association (AMWA), the European Medical Writers Association (EMWA) and the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) recognize the challenges to scientific publishing being posed by predatory journals and their publishers, which employ practices undermining the quality, integrity and reliability of published scientific research. This... More

The American Medical Writers Association (AMWA), the European Medical Writers Association (EMWA) and the International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) recognize the challenges to scientific publishing being posed by predatory journals and their publishers, which employ practices undermining the quality, integrity and reliability of published scientific research. This joint position statement complements several other sets of guidelines that have helped define the characteristics of a predatory journal1–

American Medical Writers Association, European Medical Writers Association & International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (2019) AMWA–EMWA–ISMPP joint position statement on predatory publishing,Current Medical Research and Opinion,35:9, 1657-1658,10.1080/03007995.2019.1646535 Publisher (Open Access): https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03007995.2019.1646535

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Participants’ Understanding of Informed Consent for Biobanking: A Systematic Review (Papers: Elizabeth R. Eisenhauer, et al | 2017)

Abstract Nurses are increasingly asked to obtain consent from participants for biobanking studies. Biobanking has added unique complexities to informed consent. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate participants’ level of understanding of the information presented during the informed consent process unique to the... More

Abstract Nurses are increasingly asked to obtain consent from participants for biobanking studies. Biobanking has added unique complexities to informed consent. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate participants’ level of understanding of the information presented during the informed consent process unique to the donation of biological specimens for research. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were utilized to conduct the review. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest bibliographic databases were searched. Results indicated that elements of informed consent unique to biobanking were poorly understood. Most studies had authors or funding associated with a biobank. Only one study disclosed and assessed participants’ understanding of moral risks. Increased disclosures, values-clarification, and presenting information via multiple modalities may facilitate understanding. There is a need to improve the quality of informed consent for biobanking studies by utilizing standardized instruments, definitions, and encouraging research about informed choice outside the biobanking industry. Keywords biological specimen banks, biobanking, informed consent, moral risks, understanding

Eisenhauer, E. R., Tait, A. R., Rieh, S., Y. & Arslanian-Engoren, C., M. (2017) Participants' understanding of informed consent for biobanking: a systematic review. Clinical Nursing Research. 28(1) pp30-51 Publisher: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1054773817722690

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Incorporating Exclusion Clauses into Informed Consent for Biobanking (Papers: Zubin Master and David B. Resnik)

Published/Released on March 14, 2013 | Posted by Admin on August 7, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

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Retracted papers die hard: Diederik Stapel and the enduring influence of flawed science (Papers – preprint: Luis Morís Fernández Miguel Vadillo | June 2019)

Published/Released on June 26, 2019 | Posted by Admin on July 31, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , ,

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Knowledge and motivations of researchers publishing in presumed predatory journals: a survey (Papers: Kelly D Cobey, et al | March 2019)

Published/Released on March 23, 2019 | Posted by Admin on July 27, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , ,

Abstract Objectives To develop effective interventions to prevent publishing in presumed predatory journals (ie, journals that display deceptive characteristics, markers or data that cannot be verified), it is helpful to understand the motivations and experiences of those who have published in these journals. More

Abstract Objectives To develop effective interventions to prevent publishing in presumed predatory journals (ie, journals that display deceptive characteristics, markers or data that cannot be verified), it is helpful to understand the motivations and experiences of those who have published in these journals. Design An online survey delivered to two sets of corresponding authors containing demographic information, and questions about researchers' perceptions of publishing in the presumed predatory journal, type of article processing fees paid and the quality of peer review received. The survey also asked six open-ended items about researchers' motivations and experiences. Participants Using Beall’s lists, we identified two groups of individuals who had published empirical articles in biomedical journals that were presumed to be predatory. Results Eighty-two authors partially responded (~14% response rate (11.4%[44/386] from the initial sample, 19.3%[38/197] from second sample) to our survey. The top three countries represented were India (n=21, 25.9%), USA (n=17, 21.0%) and Ethiopia (n=5, 6.2%). Three participants (3.9%) thought the journal they published in was predatory at the time of article submission. The majority of participants first encountered the journal via an email invitation to submit an article (n=32, 41.0%), or through an online search to find a journal with relevant scope (n=22, 28.2%). Most participants indicated their study received peer review (n=65, 83.3%) and that this was helpful and substantive (n=51, 79.7%). More than a third (n=32, 45.1%) indicated they did not pay fees to publish. Conclusions This work provides some evidence to inform policy to prevent future research from being published in predatory journals. Our research suggests that common views about predatory journals (eg, no peer review) may not always be true, and that a grey zone between legitimate and presumed predatory journals exists. These results are based on self-reports and may be biased thus limiting their interpretation. This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial Cobey KD, Grudniewicz A, Lalu MM, et al Knowledge and motivations of researchers publishing in presumed predatory journals: a survey. BMJ Open 2019;9:e026516. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026516 Publisher (Open Access): https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/9/3/e026516 Less

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Conducting Accessible Research: Including People With Disabilities in Public Health, Epidemiological, and Outcomes Studies (Papers: Dianne Rios, et al | November 2016)

Published/Released on December 01, 2016 | Posted by Admin on July 25, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , ,

Abstract People with disabilities are largely absent from mainstream health research. Exclusion of people with disabilities may be explicit, attributable to poorly justified exclusion criteria, or implicit, attributable to inaccessible study documents, interventions, or research measures. Meanwhile, people with disabilities experience poorer health, greater incidence of... More

Abstract People with disabilities are largely absent from mainstream health research. Exclusion of people with disabilities may be explicit, attributable to poorly justified exclusion criteria, or implicit, attributable to inaccessible study documents, interventions, or research measures. Meanwhile, people with disabilities experience poorer health, greater incidence of chronic conditions, and higher health care expenditure than people without disabilities. We outline our approach to “accessible research design”—research accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. We describe a model that includes 3 tiers: universal design, accommodations, and modifications. Through our work on several large-scale research studies, we provide pragmatic examples of accessible research design. Making efforts to include people with disabilities in public health, epidemiological, and outcomes studies will enhance the interpretability of findings for a significant patient population. Rios, D., Magasi, S., Novak, C. & Harniss, M. Conducting Accessible Research: Including People With Disabilities in Public Health, Epidemiological, and Outcomes Studies, American Journal of Public Health 106, no. 12 (December 1, 2016): pp. 2137-2144. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2016.303448 Publisher: https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2016.303448 Less

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On the use of blockchain-based mechanisms to tackle academic misconduct (Vijay Mohan | June 2019)

Published/Released on June 08, 2019 | Posted by Admin on July 18, 2019 | Keywords: , , , ,

Highlights

  • There exists a Prisoners’ Dilemma in academia, where researchers engage in misconduct in equilibrium.
  • Conventional “centralized” solutions under the current system may not work.
  • New advances in distributed ledger technology, like blockchain, provide a decentralized alternative.
  • The incentive structures in... More

    Highlights

    • There exists a Prisoners’ Dilemma in academia, where researchers engage in misconduct in equilibrium.
    • Conventional “centralized” solutions under the current system may not work.
    • New advances in distributed ledger technology, like blockchain, provide a decentralized alternative.
    • The incentive structures in academia may necessitate a solution involving a permissioned blockchain.
    • Open Science is necessary to fight misconduct.
    Abstract Current incentives for publishing in academic journals result in a “winner-take-all” contest-like situation, with significant benefits for publishing research in quality journals. At the same time, empirically, we observe a greater incidence of research misconduct. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the nature and extent of the misconduct problem, to show why it may persist in the absence of conscious remedial action, and to discuss solutions that help lower the likelihood of spurious research escaping undetected. A simple model is constructed to emphasize that there exists the potential for a Prisoners’ Dilemma in academia, where scholars engage in misconduct at equilibrium (the Academic Dilemma). The paper then examines why conventional “centralized” regulatory solutions under the current system are not likely to succeed in resolving the problem, analyzes the properties of a decentralized solution utilizing blockchains, and argues that once incentive structures in academia are factored in, a permissioned blockchain may emerge as an effective middle-ground solution for mitigating scientific misconduct. In doing so, the paper highlights the importance of new technologies and recent advancements in Open Science for battling misconduct, and takes stock of the evolving nature of academic publishing. Keywords Academic misconduct, Prisoners’ dilemma, Blockchain, Open science, Decentralized cooperation

    Mohan, V. (2019) On the use of blockchain-based mechanisms to tackle academic misconduct. Research Policy. 48(9), November 2019, 103805 Publisher: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0048733319301258

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Knowledge and attitudes among life scientists towards reproducibility within journal articles (Papers: Evanthia Kaimaklioti Samota and Robert P. Davey | June 2019)

Published/Released on June 04, 2019 | Posted by Admin on July 16, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , , , , ,

Abstract We constructed a survey to understand how authors and scientists view the issues around reproducibility, and how solutions such as interactive figures could enable the reproducibility of experiments from within a research article. This manuscript reports the results of this survey on the views of... More

Abstract We constructed a survey to understand how authors and scientists view the issues around reproducibility, and how solutions such as interactive figures could enable the reproducibility of experiments from within a research article. This manuscript reports the results of this survey on the views of 251 researchers, including authors who have published in eLIFE Sciences, and those who work at the Norwich Biosciences Institutes (NBI). The survey also outlines to what extent researchers are occupied with reproducing experiments themselves and what are their desirable features of an interactive figure. Respondents considered various features for an interactive figure within a research article that would allow for them to better understand and reproduce in situ the experiment presented in the figure. Respondents said that the most important element that would enable the better reproducibility of published research would be that authors describe methods and analyses in detail. The respondents believe that having interactive figures in published papers is a beneficial element. Whilst interactive figures are potential solutions for demonstrating technical reproducibility, we find that there are equally pressing cultural demands on researchers that need to be addressed to achieve greater success in reproducibility in the life sciences.

Samota, E. K. and R. P. Davey (2019). Knowledge and attitudes among life scientists towards reproducibility within journal articles. bioRxiv: 581033. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/581033 Publisher: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/581033v2 This article is a preprint and has not been peer-reviewed

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Authorship inflation and author gender in pulmonology research (Blake Umberham, et al | October 2018)

Published/Released on October 18, 2018 | Posted by Admin on July 12, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , ,

Abstract Introduction Honorary authorship and equal gender representation are two pressing matters in scientific research. Honorary authorship is the inclusion of authors who do not meet the criteria established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines. The inclusion of... More

Abstract Introduction Honorary authorship and equal gender representation are two pressing matters in scientific research. Honorary authorship is the inclusion of authors who do not meet the criteria established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines. The inclusion of honorary authors in the medical literature has led to an increase of the number of authors on studies and a decrease in single author studies in various fields. Methods Our primary objective was to assess authorship trends in two major pulmonology journals (selected on the basis of Google Scholar rankings): Thorax and American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. We reviewed all articles published in both journals in the years 1994, 2004, and 2014 using Web of Science and extracted data such as number of authors and gender of the first and last authors. Results The total number of authors steadily increased from 1994 to 2014. The median number of authors grew from about four in 1994 to nearly seven in 2014, which is approximately a 75% increase. When we compiled all the data, we found the percentage of female authors from both journals had increased from 17% to 29.9% during the study period. Discussion We found an increase in the average number of authors on pulmonology publications between 1994 and 2014 as well as an increase in the number of females with a lead or main author position. This may be due to a variety of factors, such as increased team science. However, our data in conjunction with data from other areas of medicine, indicate that honorary authorship may be contributing to the trends we identified.

Umberham, B., et al. (2018). "Authorship inflation and author gender in pulmonology research." bioRxiv. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/446385 Publisher (Open Access): https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/446385v1.full

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Ethical Considerations for Disseminating Research Findings on Gender-Based Violence, Armed Conflict, and Mental Health: A Case Study from Rural Uganda (Papers: Jennifer J. Mootz, et al | June 2019)

Published/Released on July 12, 2019 | Posted by Admin on July 8, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , , , ,

Abstract Gender-based violence (GBV) is a major public health problem that is exacerbated in armed conflict settings. While specialized guidelines exist for conducting research with GBV, guidance on disseminating findings from GBV research is scant. This paper describes ethical considerations of designing and disseminating research findings... More

Abstract Gender-based violence (GBV) is a major public health problem that is exacerbated in armed conflict settings. While specialized guidelines exist for conducting research with GBV, guidance on disseminating findings from GBV research is scant. This paper describes ethical considerations of designing and disseminating research findings on GBV, armed conflict, and mental health (including alcohol misuse) in conflict-affected settings in Northeastern Uganda. Following completion of two research studies, we conducted a half-day dissemination meeting with local community professionals (n=21) aged 24 to 60. Attendees were divided into small groups and given a quiz-style questionnaire on research findings to prompt discussion. Two primary ethical tensions arose. One ethical consideration was how to disseminate research findings equitably at the participant level after having taken care to collect data using safe and unharmful methods. Another ethical issue concerned how to transparently share findings of widespread problems in a hopeful and contextualized way in order to facilitate community response. We recommend planning for dissemination a priori, engaging with partners at local levels, and grounding dissemination for action in evidence-based practices.

Mootz, J. J., Taylor, L., Milton L. Khoshnood, W. & Khoshnood, K. (2019) Ethical Considerations for Disseminating Research Findings on Gender-Based Violence, Armed Conflict, and Mental Health: A Case Study from Rural Uganda. Health and Human Rights Journal. Publisher (Open Access): https://www.hhrjournal.org/2019/06/ethical-considerations-for-disseminating-research-findings-on-gender-based-violence-armed-conflict-and-mental-health-a-case-study-from-rural-uganda/

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A peer review card exchange game (Papers: Ružica Tokalićb & Ana Marušić | August 2018)

Published/Released on August 01, 2018 | Posted by Admin on July 6, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , , , ,

Abstract Introduction: Peer review aims to ensure the quality of research and help journal editors in the publication process. COST action PEERE, which explores peer review, including its efficiency, transparency and accountability, organised a peer review school endorsed by EASE. We developed... More

Abstract Introduction: Peer review aims to ensure the quality of research and help journal editors in the publication process. COST action PEERE, which explores peer review, including its efficiency, transparency and accountability, organised a peer review school endorsed by EASE. We developed a card exchange game based on responsibility and integrity in peer review for a hands-on training session. Methods: We used the approach for the development of training materials about responsible research and innovation developed by the HEIRRI project, and the principles of the card game for the popularisation of the philosophy of science. Results: We created 32 card statements about peer review, distributed across 6 domains: Responsiveness, Competence, Impartiality, Confidentiality, Constructive criticism and Responsibility to science. We adapted the instructions for the game and tested the game during the peer review school at the University of Split School of Medicine, Croatia, May 2018. The feedback by the participants was very positive. Conclusions: The Peer Review Card Exchange Game could be used as an introductory activity for teaching integrity and ethics in peer review training. Keywords Peer review, training, card game, research integrity

Tokalićb, R. & Marušić, A (2018) A peer review card exchange game. Journal: European Science Editing. 44(3) August 2018 Publisher (Open Access): http://europeanscienceediting.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/ESEAug18_origarticle.pdf Supplement: ESE Peer Review Card Exchange Game_Supplement 1 Cards Supplement 2: ESE Peer Review Card Exchange Game_Supplement 2 Instructions

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Forced Migration Review – Issue 61 (Papers: Marion Couldrey and Jenny Peebles Editors | June 2019)

the ETHICS issue exploring ethical questions that confront us in our work

We each live according to our own personal code of ethics but what moral principles guide our work? The 19... More

the ETHICS issue exploring ethical questions that confront us in our work

We each live according to our own personal code of ethics but what moral principles guide our work? The 19 feature theme articles in this issue debate many of the ethical questions that confront us in programming, research, safeguarding and volunteering, and in our use of data, new technologies, messaging and images. Prepare to be enlightened, unsettled and challenged. This issue is being published in tribute to Barbara Harrell-Bond, founder of the Refugee Studies Centre and FMR, who died in July 2018. Forced Migration Review issue 61 www.fmreview.org/ethics PDF copy of this edition Contents
  • 4 Big data, little ethics: confidentiality and consent Nicole Behnam and Kristy Crabtree
  • 7 New technologies in migration: human rights impacts Petra Molnar
  • 9 Social media screening: Norway’s asylum system Jan-Paul Brekke and Anne Balke Staver
  • 12 Developing ethical guidelines for research Christina Clark-Kazak
  • 15 ‘Over-researched’ and ‘under-researched’ refugees Naohiko Omata
  • 18 Research fatigue among Rwandan refugees in Uganda Cleophas Karooma
  • 20 Over-researching migration ‘hotspots’? Ethical issues from the Carteret Islands Johannes M Lutz
  • 23 Ethics and accountability in researching sexual violence against men and boys Sarah Chynoweth and Sarah Martin
  • 26 Ethics and consent in settlement service delivery Carla Nayton and Sally Baker
  • 28 Ethical primary research by humanitarian actors Prisca Benelli and Tamara Low
  • 30 EU migration strategy: compromising principled humanitarian action Anaïs Faure Atger
  • 33 A humanitarian approach to travel medicine? Marta Aleksandra Balinska
  • 36 Principled humanitarian assistance and non-State armed groups Ruta Nimkar, Viren Falcao, Matthew Tebbutt and Emily Savage
  • 39 Ethical dilemmas posed by unethical behaviour by persons of concern Anna Turus
  • 41 Ethical quandaries in volunteering Ashley Witcher
  • 44 The ethical use of images and messaging Dualta Roughneen
  • 47 Representing refugees in advocacy campaigns Natalie Slade
  • 49 Putting safeguarding commitments into practice Agnes Olusese and Catherine Hingley
  • 52 Safeguarding in conflict and crisis Sarah Blakemore and Rosa Freedman Tribute to Barbara Harrell-Bond
  • 55 A Life Not Ordinary: our colleague Barbara Harrell-Bond Matthew Gibney, Dawn Chatty and Roger Zetter
  • 56 A lifelong commitment to justice HRH Prince El Hassan bin Talal of Jordan
  • 58 A refugee-centred perspective Anita H Fábos
  • 60 Building expert witness reports: Barbara’s legacy Maja Grundler
  • 62 The helpfulness of Imposing Aid: a tribute from the Refugee Law Project Chris Dolan
  • 65 Barbara’s ethics of antagonism Joshua Craze
  • 67 AMERA: delivering a refugee-centred approach to protection Sarah Elliott and Megan Denise Smith
  • 69 From a critique of camps to better forms of aid Alyoscia D’Onofrio
  • 72 Resist injustice Olivier Rukundo
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Guidelines for open peer review implementation (Paper: Tony Ross-Hellauer and Edit Görögh | February 2019)

Published/Released on February 27, 2019 | Posted by Admin on June 28, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

Abstract Open peer review (OPR) is moving into the mainstream, but it is often poorly understood and surveys of researcher attitudes show important barriers to implementation. As more journals move to implement and experiment with the myriad of innovations covered by this term, there is a... More

Abstract Open peer review (OPR) is moving into the mainstream, but it is often poorly understood and surveys of researcher attitudes show important barriers to implementation. As more journals move to implement and experiment with the myriad of innovations covered by this term, there is a clear need for best practice guidelines to guide implementation. This brief article aims to address this knowledge gap, reporting work based on an interactive stakeholder workshop to create best-practice guidelines for editors and journals who wish to transition to OPR. Although the advice is aimed mainly at editors and publishers of scientific journals, since this is the area in which OPR is at its most mature, many of the principles may also be applicable for the implementation of OPR in other areas (e.g., books, conference submissions). Keywords Peer review, Guidelines, Open peer review, Scholarly publishing, Open science

Ross-Hellauer, T. and Görögh, E. (2019) Guidelines for open peer review implementation. Research Integrity and Peer Review. 4(4) https://doi.org/10.1186/s41073-019-0063-9 Publisher (Open Access): https://researchintegrityjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41073-019-0063-9

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Establishing Rules for Ethicists and Ethics Organizations in Academic Publishing to Avoid Conflicts of Interest, Favoritism, Cronyism and Nepotism (Papers: Dr. János Tóth, et al | May 2019)

Abstract: A proliferation of publication venues, scholarly journals, use of social media to disseminate knowledge and research results, scientific information, increased international scientific collaboration, a move towards open knowledge and data sharing, recent scandals such as journal editors’ coercive citations, fake peer review, peer review rings, data... More

Abstract: A proliferation of publication venues, scholarly journals, use of social media to disseminate knowledge and research results, scientific information, increased international scientific collaboration, a move towards open knowledge and data sharing, recent scandals such as journal editors’ coercive citations, fake peer review, peer review rings, data fabrication, research spin, and retraction of articles, several of the latter within the emergence of a post publication peer review movement, are some of the many reasons why publishing ethics are constantly evolving. These challenges have led to the birth of an increasing number of guidelines and recommendations being issued by multiple organizations and committees around the world in light of the recognized need to salvage peer review, and in an attempt to restore eroding trust in science, scientists and their publications. The principal objective of these guidelines and recommendations is supposedly to provide guidance for editors, reviewers and authors to conduct honest and ethical research and publishing practices, including responsible authorship and editorship, conflict of interest management, maintaining the confidentiality of peer review, and other ethical issues that arise in conducting and reporting research. Despite the fact that scholarly publishing is an international enterprise with global impact, current guidelines and recommendations appear to fall very short on imposing any obligations on their parent members, i.e., committee members who issue guidelines and recommend solutions for ethical dilemmas especially when such organizations are dependent on commercial publishers who may be paying members. Obviously, financial incentives indicate that ethical organizations or ethicists are not in a power position compared to editors or publishers. Imbalanced guidelines risk that hidden conflicts of interest, cronyism, or nepotism may corrupt the decision-making process or the ethical hierarchy that has been put into place to safe-guard research and publishing ethics. Therefore, the ethics gate-keepers to the integrity of scholarly publishing should also be carefully scrutinized, and strict ethical guidelines have to be imposed on them as equally as their rules are imposed on global academia to avoid the risk of further corrupting the scientific process as a result of the absence of strong exterior regulation or oversight. This theoretical paper highlights signs of favoritism and cronyism in ethics. It also offers proposals for rules (limitations and consequences) to avoid them in science publishing. Our guidelines should be used by academics in the position of authors or editors who may sense, perceive or detect abuses of power among ethicists. Keywords: organization ethics; ethical dilemmas; corruption; conflict of interest

Teixeira da Silva, J. A., Katavić, V., Dobránszki, J., Al-Khatib, A. and Bornemann-Cimenti, Hel (2019) Establishing Rules for Ethicists and Ethics Organizations in Academic Publishing to Avoid Conflicts of Interest, Favoritism, Cronyism and Nepotism. KOME: An International Journal of Pure Communication Inquiry. ISSN 2063-7330 Publisher (Open Access): http://komejournal.com/files/KOME_MS_rulesethicists.pdf ResearchGate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333311739_Establishing_Rules_for_Ethicists_and_Ethics...

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Plan U: Universal access to scientific and medical research via funder preprint mandates (Papers: Richard Sever, et al | June 2019)

Published/Released on June 04, 2019 | Posted by Admin on June 10, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , ,

Abstract Preprint servers such as arXiv and bioRxiv represent a highly successful and relatively low cost mechanism for providing free access to research findings. By decoupling the dissemination of manuscripts from the much slower process of evaluation and certification by journals, preprints also significantly accelerate the... More

Abstract Preprint servers such as arXiv and bioRxiv represent a highly successful and relatively low cost mechanism for providing free access to research findings. By decoupling the dissemination of manuscripts from the much slower process of evaluation and certification by journals, preprints also significantly accelerate the pace of research itself by allowing other researchers to begin building on new results immediately. If all funding agencies were to mandate posting of preprints by grantees—an approach we term Plan U (for “universal”)—free access to the world’s scientific output for everyone would be achieved with minimal effort. Moreover, the existence of all articles as preprints would create a fertile environment for experimentation with new peer review and research evaluation initiatives, which would benefit from a reduced barrier to entry because hosting and archiving costs were already covered.

Sever, R., Eisen, M., Inglis, J. (2019) Plan U: Universal access to scientific and medical research via funder preprint mandates. PLoS Biology 17(6): e3000273. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000273 Publisher (Open Access): https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.3000273

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Reviewer-coerced citation: Case report, update on journal policy, and suggestions for future prevention (Papers: Jonathan D Wren, et al | January 2019)

Published/Released on January 30, 2019 | Posted by Admin on June 8, 2019 | Keywords: , , , ,

A case was recently brought to the journal’s attention regarding a reviewer who had requested a large number of citations to their own papers as part of their review. After investigation of their most recent reviews, we found that in every review this reviewer requested an average of 35... More

A case was recently brought to the journal’s attention regarding a reviewer who had requested a large number of citations to their own papers as part of their review. After investigation of their most recent reviews, we found that in every review this reviewer requested an average of 35 citations be added, ∼90% of which were to their own papers and the remainder to papers that both cited them extensively and mentioned them by name in the title. The reviewer’s phrasing strongly suggested that inclusion of these citations would influence their recommendation to the editor to accept or reject the paper. The reviewer was unable to provide a satisfactory justification for these requests and Bioinformatics has therefore banned them as a reviewer. Our investigation also suggests that the reviewer has behaved similarly in reviewing for other journals. This case has alerted us to how the peer-review system is vulnerable to unethical behavior, and prompted us to clarify the journal’s policy on when it is appropriate for reviewers to request citations to their own work, and to suggest how some of the current weak points in the peer-review system can be mitigated, so that this behavior can be detected more quickly and efficiently.

Wren, J.D., Valencia, A. & Kelso, J. Reviewer-coerced citation: case report, update on journal policy and suggestions for future prevention, Bioinformatics, , btz071, https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btz071 Publisher (Open Access): https://academic.oup.com/bioinformatics/advance-article/doi/10.1093/bioinformatics/btz071/5304360

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Thinking about ethics in Burma research (Papers: Lisa Brooten & Rosalie Metro | 2014)

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“Always read the small print”: a case study of commercial research funding, disclosure and agreements with Coca-Cola (Papers: Sarah Steele| May 2019)

Published/Released on May 08, 2019 | Posted by Admin on May 27, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , ,

Abstract Concerns about conflicts of interest in commercially funded research have generated increasing disclosure requirements, but are these enough to assess influence? Using the Coca-Cola Company as an example, we explore its research agreements to understand influence. Freedom of Information requests identified 87,013 pages of documents,... More

Abstract Concerns about conflicts of interest in commercially funded research have generated increasing disclosure requirements, but are these enough to assess influence? Using the Coca-Cola Company as an example, we explore its research agreements to understand influence. Freedom of Information requests identified 87,013 pages of documents, including five agreements between Coca-Cola and public institutions in the United States, and Canada. We assess whether they allowed Coca-Cola to exercise control or influence. Provisions gave Coca-Cola the right to review research in advance of publication as well as control over (1) study data, (2) disclosure of results and (3) acknowledgement of Coca-Cola funding. Some agreements specified that Coca-Cola has the ultimate decision about any publication of peer-reviewed papers prior to its approval of the researchers’ final report. If so desired, Coca-Cola can thus prevent publication of unfavourable research, but we found no evidence of this to date in the emails we received. The documents also reveal researchers can negotiate with funders successfully to remove restrictive clauses on their research. We recommend journals supplement funding disclosures and conflict-of-interest statements by requiring authors to attach funder agreements. Keywords Coca-Cola Research funding Transparency Industry funding Conflicts of interest

Steele, S., Ruski, G,. McKee, M. & Stuckler, D. (2019). "Always read the small print”: a case study of commercial research funding, disclosure and agreements with Coca-Cola. Journal of Public Health Policy. Publisher (Open Access): https://link.springer.com/article/10.1057%2Fs41271-019-00170-9

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The ethics of New Development Economics: is the Experimental Approach to Development Economics morally wrong? (Papers: Stéphane J. Baele)

Published/Released on November 19, 2013 | Posted by Admin on May 21, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , , , , , ,

Abstract: The 2000s have witnessed the arrival and growing popularity of randomized controlled experiments (RCTs) in Development Economics. Whilst this new way of conducting research on development has unfolded important insights, the ethical challenge it provokes has not yet been... More

Abstract: The 2000s have witnessed the arrival and growing popularity of randomized controlled experiments (RCTs) in Development Economics. Whilst this new way of conducting research on development has unfolded important insights, the ethical challenge it provokes has not yet been systematically examined. The present article aims at filling this gap by providing the first ad hoc discussion of the moral issues that accompany the use of RCTs in Development Economics. Claiming that this new research agenda needs its own, specific set of ethical guidelines, we expose the six ethical problems that these experiments potentially provoke and that should therefore be carefully assessed by ethics committees before an RCT is launched and by scholarly journals before its results are published. Keywords: Development Economics, ethics, RCTs, experiments

Baele, Stéphane J. (2013) ‘The ethics of New Development Economics: is the Experimental Approach to Development Economics morally wrong?’, The Journal of Philosophical Economics, VII:1 Publisher (Open Access): https://jpe.ro/?id=revista&p=291&cuprins=vizibil

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Australian Mental Health Consumer and Carer Perspectives on Ethics in Adult Mental Health Research (Papers: Alyssa R. Morse, et al | April 2019)

Abstract Barriers to research arise when national ethical guidelines governing the inclusion of consumers in mental health research are implemented at the local level. Equivalent guidelines for research involving carers are not available. A social science investigation of Australian mental health consumer and carer perspectives... More

Abstract Barriers to research arise when national ethical guidelines governing the inclusion of consumers in mental health research are implemented at the local level. Equivalent guidelines for research involving carers are not available. A social science investigation of Australian mental health consumer and carer perspectives on research ethics procedures was conducted in two interlinked stages: (a) a discussion forum with consumers, carers, and lived-experience researchers and (b) in-depth interviews with consumers and carers. Data collection and analysis drew strongly on methodological features of grounded theory. Privacy, confidentiality, and stigmatizing ethics procedures were key issues for consumer and carer participants. Recommendations for research practice include the following: considering the impact of information sharing on participants' relationships and adopting individual-focused approaches to managing research risks.
Keywords: caregiver; carer involvement; consumer involvement; mental health; research ethics; service user

Morse, A. R., Forbes, O., Jones, B. A., Gulliver, A., & Banfield, M. (2019). Australian Mental Health Consumer and Carer Perspectives on Ethics in Adult Mental Health Research. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics. https://doi.org/10.1177/1556264619844396 Publisher: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1556264619844396

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The Pernicious Effects of Compression Plagiarism on Scholarly Argumentation (Papers: M. V. Dougherty | April 2019)

Published/Released on April 12, 2019 | Posted by Admin on April 26, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , ,

Abstract Despite an increased recognition that plagiarism in published research can take many forms, current typologies of plagiarism are far from complete. One under-recognized variety of plagiarism—designated here as compression plagiarism—consists of the distillation of a lengthy scholarly text... More

Abstract Despite an increased recognition that plagiarism in published research can take many forms, current typologies of plagiarism are far from complete. One under-recognized variety of plagiarism—designated here as compression plagiarism—consists of the distillation of a lengthy scholarly text into a short one, followed by the publication of the short one under a new name with inadequate credit to the original author. In typical cases, compression plagiarism is invisible to unsuspecting readers and immune to anti-plagiarism software. The persistence of uncorrected instances of plagiarism in all its forms—including compression plagiarism—in the body of published research literature has deleterious consequences for the reliability of scholarly communication. Not the least of these problems is that original authors are denied credit for their discoveries. When unsuspecting researchers read articles that are the products of plagiarism, they unwittingly engage the arguments of hidden original authors through the proxy of plagiarists. Furthermore, when these researchers later publish responses to the plagiarizing articles, not knowing they are engaging products of plagiarism, they create additional inefficiencies and redundancies in the body of published research. This article analyzes a suspected instance of compression plagiarism that appeared within the pages of this journal and considers the particular ways in which plagiarism of this variety weakens the quality of scholarly argumentation, with special attention paid to the field of philosophy.

Keywords Compression plagiarism Authorship Research misconduct Retractions Argumentation Scholarly communication 

Dougherty, M.V. (2019) The Pernicious Effects of Compression Plagiarism on Scholarly Argumentation. Argumentation. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10503-019-09481-3 Publisher: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10503-019-09481-3

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Commentary: a broader perspective on the RePAIR consensus guidelines (Responsibilities of Publishers, Agencies, Institutions, and Researchers in protecting the integrity of the research record) (Papers: Zoë H. Hammatt | December 2018)

Published/Released on April 14, 2019 | Posted by Admin on April 14, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , , , ,

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RePAIR consensus guidelines: Responsibilities of Publishers, Agencies, Institutions, and Researchers in protecting the integrity of the research record (Papers: Collaborative Working Group from the conference “Keeping the Pool Clean… | December 2018)

Abstract The progression of research and scholarly inquiry does not occur in isolation and is wholly dependent on accurate reporting of methods and results, and successful replication of prior work. Without mechanisms to correct the literature, much time and money is wasted on research based on... More

Abstract The progression of research and scholarly inquiry does not occur in isolation and is wholly dependent on accurate reporting of methods and results, and successful replication of prior work. Without mechanisms to correct the literature, much time and money is wasted on research based on a crumbling foundation. These guidelines serve to outline the respective responsibilities of researchers, institutions, agencies, and publishers or editors in maintaining the integrity of the research record. Delineating these complementary roles and proposing solutions for common barriers provide a foundation for best practices. Keywords Research integrity, Retractions, Researchers, Publishers, Editors, Agencies, Institutions, Research misconduct, International, Communication

Research Integrity and Peer Review - RePAIR consensus guidelines: Responsibilities of Publishers, Agencies, Institutions, and Researchers in protecting the integrity of the research record. Research Integrity and Peer Review 2018, 3:15 https://doi.org/10.1186/s41073-018-0055-1 Publisher (Open Access): https://researchintegrityjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41073-018-0055-1

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Research Misconduct in East Asia’s Research Environments (Papers: Hee-Je Bak | June 2018)

Published/Released on June 01, 2018 | Posted by Admin on April 6, 2019 | Keywords: , , ,

High-profile cases of scientific misconduct, such as the Hwang scandal in South Korea, the Obokata scandal in Japan, and the growing number of retracted papers written by Chinese scientists have led to a new interest in research misconduct in East Asia. Since research misconduct is by no means rare... More

High-profile cases of scientific misconduct, such as the Hwang scandal in South Korea, the Obokata scandal in Japan, and the growing number of retracted papers written by Chinese scientists have led to a new interest in research misconduct in East Asia. Since research misconduct is by no means rare in the history of science, some observers may view them merely as indicative of increased research activity in this region. From this perspective, research misconduct tends to result in blaming and punishing individual scientists. However, if we subscribe to the precept of STS that scientists’ behavior is embedded in their social and cultural contexts, we may use research misconduct to apprehend the distinctive social and cultural contexts of scientific practices. In other words, the investigation of research misconduct in East Asia is a valuable opportunity for the STS community to discuss the social and cultural environment that shapes research practices in this region. Drawing on three cases of research misconduct in Japan, South Korea, and China, this special issue highlights the social and cultural environments surrounding each case rather than the scientific misconduct itself. Local biologicals are a promising way of capturing the influence of social and cultural environments of a specific location on scientific practices. Sarah Franklin has explained stem cell science as a global biological enterprise interwoven with local biologicals. She described a local biological as practices in stem cell science that reflect “specific national and economic priorities, moral and civic values, and technoscientific institutional cultures” (Franklin 2005, 61). Using the concept of local and global biologicals, Koichi Mikami’s article in this issue highlights the importance of social and institutional culture to understand a case of research misconduct. She addresses the stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP) cell scandal, often called the Obokata scandal, in Japan where Haruko Obokata and her colleagues at RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology (CDB) published two papers in Nature on a new method to reprogram differentiated somatic cells to be pluripotent, or capable of becoming any type of cell in the body, but soon these papers were retracted. Mikami focuses on how Japan’s socioinstitutional culture influences the reactions of society to Obokata’s claim of the existence of STAP cells, instead of her individual misbehavior. She notes the influence of Shinya Yamanaka’s success on stem cell science in Japan. Obokata’s work attracted media attention in Japan partly because it claimed to extend Yamanaka’s work on iPS cells. As a Nobel Prize winner, Yamanaka was a young hero in Japan and brought high expectations for stem cell research not only in the stem cell research community but also in the Japanese government and the public. According to Mikami, the initial enthusiasm for Obokata and her colleagues’ successful experiment on STAP cells reflected the high expectation for stem cell research in Japan since Yamanaka’s success in 2007, which constitutes a local biological.

Bak, HJ. (2018) Research Misconduct in East Asia’s Research Environments. East Asian Science, Technology and Society 12 (2): 117-122. https://doi.org/10.1215/18752160-6577620 Publisher (Open Access): https://read.dukeupress.edu/easts/article/12/2/117/133940/Research-Misconduct-in-East-Asia-s-Research

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Publish and Perish: The Dangers of Being Young and in a Hurry (Papers: James S. Huntley | February 2019)

Published/Released on February 19, 2019 | Posted by Admin on April 5, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , , , , , ,

Abstract Publications in peer-reviewed journals are a key and official requirement for progression to a consultant surgeon post. Paradoxically, a stipulation that should enhance the importance of surgical research may, in fact, contribute to a pressure that is one of the causes of research misconduct. Consultant trainers can... More

Abstract Publications in peer-reviewed journals are a key and official requirement for progression to a consultant surgeon post. Paradoxically, a stipulation that should enhance the importance of surgical research may, in fact, contribute to a pressure that is one of the causes of research misconduct. Consultant trainers can go some way to mitigating against this danger with appropriate teaching and an emphasis on the core values surrounding research ethics.

Huntley J S (February 19, 2019) Publish and Perish: The Dangers of Being Young and in a Hurry. Cureus 11(2): e4098. doi:10.7759/cureus.4098 Publisher (Editorial): https://www.cureus.com/articles/17575-publish-and-perish-the-dangers-of-being-young-and-in-a-hurry

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The impact on authors and editors of introducing Data Availability Statements at Nature journals ( Papers: Rebecca Grant & Iain Hrynaszkiewicz | December 2018)

Published/Released on December 27, 2018 | Posted by Admin on April 4, 2019 | Keywords: , , , ,

Abstract

This article describes the adoption of a standard policy for the inclusion of data availability statements in all research articles published at the Nature family of journals, and the subsequent research which assessed the impacts that these policies had on authors, editors,... More

Abstract

This article describes the adoption of a standard policy for the inclusion of data availability statements in all research articles published at the Nature family of journals, and the subsequent research which assessed the impacts that these policies had on authors, editors, and the availability of datasets. The key findings of this research project include the determination of average and median times required to add a data availability statement to an article; and a correlation between the way researchers make their data available, and the time required to add a data availability statement.

Grant, R. & Hrynaszkiewicz, I. (2018)  The impact on authors and editors of introducing Data Availability Statements at Nature journals. International Journal of Digital Curation. 13(1) DOI: https://doi.org/10.2218/ijdc.v13i1.614 Publisher: http://www.ijdc.net/article/view/614

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Genomic Research Through an Indigenous Lens: Understanding the Expectations (Nanibaa’ A. Garrison, et al | August 2019)

Published/Released on August 15, 2019 | Posted by Admin on April 2, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , , , ,

Abstract Indigenous scholars are leading initiatives to improve access to genetic and genomic research and health care based on their unique cultural contexts and within sovereign-based governance models created and accepted by their peoples. In the past, Indigenous peoples’ engagement with genomic research was hampered by... More

Abstract Indigenous scholars are leading initiatives to improve access to genetic and genomic research and health care based on their unique cultural contexts and within sovereign-based governance models created and accepted by their peoples. In the past, Indigenous peoples’ engagement with genomic research was hampered by a lack of standardized guidelines and institutional partnerships, resulting in group harms. This article provides a comparative analysis of research guidelines from Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and the United States that pertain to Indigenous peoples. The goals of the analysis are to identify areas that need attention, support Indigenous-led governance, and promote the development of a model research policy framework for genomic research and health care that has international relevance for Indigenous peoples. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics Volume 22 is August 30, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

Garrison, N. A., Hudson, M., L. Ballantyne, LL., Garba, I. Martinez, A., Taualii, M., Arbour L., Caron, NR. and Rainie, SC. (2019). Genomic Research Through an Indigenous Lens: Understanding the Expectations. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 20(1) https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-genom-083118-015434

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The Foundation of Knowledge Production: Research Ethics Education in Taiwan (PowerPoint: Chien Chou | September 2018)

Outline

1. The Importance of Research Ethics 2. Researchers’Needs for Education 3. Education and Implementation Mechanism of Research Ethics in Taiwan’s Higher Education 4. Concluding Remarks

The Importance of research ethics

• Presents a baseline for all research behaviors • Protects others, minimizes harm... More

Outline

1. The Importance of Research Ethics 2. Researchers’Needs for Education 3. Education and Implementation Mechanism of Research Ethics in Taiwan’s Higher Education 4. Concluding Remarks

The Importance of research ethics

• Presents a baseline for all research behaviors • Protects others, minimizes harm and increases the sum of good • Supports trust among researchers and between research communities and the public • Ensures research integrity and quality • Satisfies organizational and professional demands • Copes with new and more challenging problems

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A decade of empirical research on research integrity: what have we (not) looked at? (Papers: Noémie Aubert Bonn & Wim Pinxten | March 2019)

Published/Released on March 04, 2019 | Posted by Admin on March 20, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , , , ,

Abstract In the past decades, increasing visibility of research misconduct scandals created momentum for discourses on research integrity to such an extent that the topic became a field of research itself. Yet, a comprehensive overview of research in the field is still missing. Here we describe... More

Abstract In the past decades, increasing visibility of research misconduct scandals created momentum for discourses on research integrity to such an extent that the topic became a field of research itself. Yet, a comprehensive overview of research in the field is still missing. Here we describe methods, trends, publishing patterns, and impact of a decade of research on research integrity. To give a comprehensive overview of research on research integrity, we first systematically searched SCOPUS, Web of Science, and PubMed for relevant articles published in English between 2005 and 2015. We then classified each relevant article according to its topic, several methodological characteristics, its general focus and findings, and its citation impact. We included 986 articles in our analysis. We found that the body of literature on research integrity is growing in importance, and that the field is still largely dominated by non-empirical publications. Within the bulk of empirical records (N=342), researchers and students are most often studied, but other actors and the social context in which they interact, seem to be overlooked. The few empirical articles that examined determinants of misconduct found that problems from the research system (e.g., pressure, competition) were most likely to cause inadequate research practices. Paradoxically, the majority of empirical articles proposing approaches to foster integrity focused on techniques to build researchers’ awareness and compliance rather than techniques to change the research system. Our review highlights the areas, methods, and actors favoured in research on research integrity, and reveals a few blindspots. Involving non-researchers and reconnecting what is known to the approaches investigated may be the first step to generate executable knowledge that will allow us to increase the success of future approaches.

Bonn, N.A. & Pinxten, W. (2019) A decade of empirical research on research integrity: what have we (not) looked at? bioRxiv. 567263; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/567263 Publisher (Open Access): https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/567263v1

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Presenting and representing others: towards an ethics of engagement (Papers: Lucy Pickering and Helen Kara | February 2017)

Published/Released on February 16, 2017 | Posted by Admin on March 14, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

Abstract The ethics of research representation are rarely discussed. Yet representation can have a significant impact on research participants and audiences. This paper draws on some of the limited body of accounts of ethical challenges experienced in representing others in qualitative research. These accounts make clear... More

Abstract The ethics of research representation are rarely discussed. Yet representation can have a significant impact on research participants and audiences. This paper draws on some of the limited body of accounts of ethical challenges experienced in representing others in qualitative research. These accounts make clear that researchers often have to choose between ‘competing goods’ when representing others, such as participant control over what is presented and how, researchers’ ‘interpretive authority’, and whether and how to represent participants’ speech. These decisions frequently involve researchers choosing between ‘literal’ (empirical, evidence-based) and ‘real’ (authentic, experiential) truths. To resolve these dilemmas, some researchers are turning to creative methods of representation, such as poems, songs, plays and dance. Like all forms of representation, these methods require compromise: in particular, some detail, depth, or location may be sacrificed in return for accessible engagement with participants and wider audiences. Conversely, traditional methods of presentation may sacrifice some scope for engagement and accessibility in return for greater detail and depth. We argue that such sacrifices are a necessary component of all forms of qualitative representation and consequently require a reflexive approach to choices about representation. It is this reflexive approach which we argue constitutes an ethics of engagement. Keywords Ethics, presentation, representation, reflexivity, engagement

Pickering, L., and Kara, H. (2017) Presenting and representing others: towards an ethics of engagement. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, (doi:10.1080/13645579.2017.1287875) https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/77601396.pdf

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(US) Is it time to revise the definition of research misconduct? (Papers: David B. Resnik | February 2019)

Published/Released on February 01, 2019 | Posted by Admin on March 9, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , ,

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Persistent Underrepresentation of Women’s Science in High Profile Journals (Papers: Yiqin Alicia Shen, et al | 2018)

Published/Released on March 02, 2018 | Posted by Admin on March 7, 2019 | Keywords: , , , ,

Abstract [colored_box]Past research has demonstrated an under-representation of female editors and reviewers in top scientific journals, but very few studies have examined the representation of women authors within original research articles. We collected research article publication records from 15 high-profile multidisciplinary and neuroscience journals for 2005-2017... More

Abstract [colored_box]Past research has demonstrated an under-representation of female editors and reviewers in top scientific journals, but very few studies have examined the representation of women authors within original research articles. We collected research article publication records from 15 high-profile multidisciplinary and neuroscience journals for 2005-2017 and analyzed the representation of women over time, as well as its relationship with journal impact factor. We found that 1) Women authors have been persistently underrepresented in high-profile journals. This under-representation has persisted over more than a decade, with glacial improvement over time. 2) The percent of female first and last authors is negatively associated with a journal's impact factor. Since publishing in high-profile journals is a gateway to academic success, this underrepresentation of women may contribute to the lack of women at the top of the scientific academic ladder.

Shen YA., Webster JM., Shoda Y (2018) Persistent Underrepresentation of Women's Science in High Profile Journals. bioRxiv. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/275362 Publisher (Open Access): https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2018/03/02/275362

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Whitepaper: Practical challenges for researchers in data sharing (David Stuart, et al | September 2018)

Published/Released on March 21, 2018 | Posted by Admin on March 4, 2019 | Keywords: , , , ,

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The Ethics Ecosystem: Personal Ethics, Network Governance and Regulating Actors Governing the Use of Social Media Research Data (Papers: Gabrielle Samuel, et al | February 2019)

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Children in Social Research: Do Higher Payments Encourage Participation in Riskier Studies? (Stephanie Taplin, et al | February 2019)

Published/Released on February 09, 2019 | Posted by Admin on February 18, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , , , , ,

Abstract [colored_box]The MESSI (Managing Ethical Studies on Sensitive Issues) study used hypothetical scenarios, presented via a brief online survey, to explore whether payment amounts influenced Australian children and young people to participate in social research of different sensitivity. They were more likely to participate in the... More

Abstract [colored_box]The MESSI (Managing Ethical Studies on Sensitive Issues) study used hypothetical scenarios, presented via a brief online survey, to explore whether payment amounts influenced Australian children and young people to participate in social research of different sensitivity. They were more likely to participate in the lower sensitivity study than in the higher at all payment levels (A$200 prize draw, no payment, $30, or $100). Offering payments to children and young people increased the likelihood that they would agree to participate in the studies and, in general, the higher the payments, the higher the likelihood of their participating. No evidence of undue influence was detected: payments can be used to increase the participation of children and young people in research without concerns of undue influence on their behavior in the face of relatively risky research. When considering the level of payment, however, the overriding consideration should be the level of risk to the children and young people. . Keywords children and adolescent, pediatrics, justice, participant selection, inclusion, recruitment, payment for research participation, research ethics, risks, benefits, and burdens of research, beneficence and nonmaleficence, vignette studies, decision-making capacity, surrogate decision makers, parental consent, child assent, voluntariness, coercion .

Taplin, S., Chalmers, J., Hoban, B., McArthur, M., Moore, T. and Graham, A. (2019) Research Ethics Committees’ Oversight of Biomedical Research in South Africa: A Thematic Analysis of Ethical Issues Raised During Ethics Review of Non-Expedited Protocols. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics. Publisher:

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Political Research and Human Research Ethics Committees (Papers: Anthony J. Langlois | 2011)

Published/Released on February 16, 2011 | Posted by Admin on February 5, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , , , ,

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The picture talk project: Aboriginal community input on consent for research (Papers: Emily FM Fitzpatrick, et al | 2019)

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Ten considerations for open peer review (Papers: Birgit Schmidt, et al |

Published/Released on June 29, 2018 | Posted by Admin on January 26, 2019 | Keywords: , , , , ,

Abstract Open peer review (OPR), as with other elements of open science and open research, is on the rise. It aims to bring greater transparency and participation to formal and informal peer review processes. But what is meant by `open peer review', and what advantages and... More

Abstract Open peer review (OPR), as with other elements of open science and open research, is on the rise. It aims to bring greater transparency and participation to formal and informal peer review processes. But what is meant by `open peer review', and what advantages and disadvantages does it have over standard forms of review? How do authors or reviewers approach OPR? And what pitfalls and opportunities should you look out for? Here, we propose ten considerations for OPR, drawing on discussions with authors, reviewers, editors, publishers and librarians, and provide a pragmatic, hands-on introduction to these issues. We cover basic principles and summarise best practices, indicating how to use OPR to achieve best value and mutual benefits for all stakeholders and the wider research community. Keywords open peer review, open science, good practice, research integrity

Schmidt B, Ross-Hellauer T, van Edig X and Moylan EC. Ten considerations for open peer review [version 1; referees: 2 approved]. F1000Research 2018, 7:969 (doi: 10.12688/f1000research.15334.1)

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Ethics & Human Research (E&HR)

Published/Released on January 24, 2019 | Posted by Admin on January 25, 2019 | Keywords: , ,

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Including People with Dementia in Research: An Analysis of Australian Ethical and Legal Rules and Recommendations for Reform (Papers: Nola M. Ries, et al | 2017)

Abstract Research is crucial to advancing knowledge about dementia, yet the burden of the disease currently outpaces research activity. Research often excludes people with dementia and other cognitive impairments because researchers and ethics committees are concerned about issues related to capacity, consent, and substitute decision-making. In... More

Abstract Research is crucial to advancing knowledge about dementia, yet the burden of the disease currently outpaces research activity. Research often excludes people with dementia and other cognitive impairments because researchers and ethics committees are concerned about issues related to capacity, consent, and substitute decision-making. In Australia, participation in research by people with cognitive impairment is governed by a national ethics statement and a patchwork of state and territorial laws that have widely varying rules. We contend that this legislative variation precludes a consistent approach to research governance and participation and hinders research that seeks to include people with impaired capacity. In this paper, we present key ethical principles, provide a comprehensive review of applicable legal rules in Australian states and territories, and highlight significant differences and ambiguities. Our analysis includes recommendations for reform to improve clarity and consistency in the law and reduce barriers that may exclude persons with dementia from participating in ethically approved research. Our recommendations seek to advance the national decisionmaking principles recommended by the Australian Law Reform Commission, which emphasize the rights of all adults to make their own decisions and for those with impaired capacity to have access to appropriate supports to help them make decisions that affect their lives. Keywords Research ethics, Law. Dementia, Consent, Substitute decision-making, Advance directives

Ries, N. M., Thompson KA., & Lowe M. (2017) Including People with Dementia in Research: An Analysis of Australian Ethical and Legal Rules and Recommendations for Reform. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 14(3): 359-374. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11673-017-9794-9

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Of Parachutes and Participant Protection: Moving Beyond Quality to Advance Effective Research Ethics Oversight (Papers: Holly Fernandez Lynch, et al | December 2018)

Abstract [colored_box]There are several reasons to believe that Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and Human Research Protection Programs (HRPPs) contribute to ethical research and the protection of research participants, but there are also important reasons to interrogate this belief. Determining whether IRBs and HRPPs “work” requires empirical... More

Abstract [colored_box]There are several reasons to believe that Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and Human Research Protection Programs (HRPPs) contribute to ethical research and the protection of research participants, but there are also important reasons to interrogate this belief. Determining whether IRBs and HRPPs “work” requires empirical evaluation of whether and how well they actually achieve what they were designed to do. In other words, it is critical to examine their outcomes and not only their procedures and structures. In this response to Tsan, we argue that the concept of IRB and HRPP quality entails three dimensions: (1) effectiveness, (2) procedures and structures likely to promote effectiveness, and (3) features unrelated to effectiveness but nonetheless essential, such as efficiency, fairness, and proportionality. Because not all types of quality necessarily guarantee or entail effectiveness, we suggest that broad quality assessments, including such features as regulatory compliance and other procedural measures suggested by Tsan, are unhelpful as the first step in evaluating IRBs and HRPPs. Instead, we must start with outcomes relevant to effectiveness. To do this, we launched the Consortium to Advance Effective Research Ethics Oversight (AEREO), with a mission to define and specify ways to measure relevant outcomes for research ethics oversight, empirically evaluate whether those outcomes are achieved, test new approaches to achieving them, and ultimately, develop and implement empirically-based policy and practice to advance IRB and HRPP effectiveness. We describe several anticipated AEREO projects and call for collaboration between various stakeholders to more meaningfully evaluate IRB and HRPPs. Keywords Institutional Review Board, research ethics oversight, effectiveness, quality, empirical evaluation

Lynch, H. F., Nicholls, S., Meyer, M. N., & Taylor, H. A. (2018). Of Parachutes and Participant Protection: Moving Beyond Quality to Advance Effective Research Ethics Oversight. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics. https://doi.org/10.1177/1556264618812625 Publisher: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1556264618812625#articleCitationDownloadContainer

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Institutional Conflict of Interest Policies at U.S. Academic Research Institutions (Papers: David B. Resnik, et al | 2016)

Published/Released on February 01, 2016 | Posted by Admin on January 11, 2019 | Keywords: , ,

[colored_box]Abstract Purpose Institutional conflicts of interest (ICOIs) occur when the institution or leaders with authority to act on behalf of the institution have conflicts of interest (COIs) that may threaten the objectivity, integrity, or trustworthiness of research because they could impact institutional decision... More

[colored_box]Abstract Purpose Institutional conflicts of interest (ICOIs) occur when the institution or leaders with authority to act on behalf of the institution have conflicts of interest (COIs) that may threaten the objectivity, integrity, or trustworthiness of research because they could impact institutional decision making. The purpose of this study was to gather and analyze information about the ICOI policies of the top 100 U.S. academic research institutions, ranked according to total research funding. . Method From May–June 2014, the authors attempted to obtain ICOI policy information for the top 100 U.S. academic research institutions from publicly available Web sites or via e-mail inquiry. If an ICOI policy was not found, the institutions' online COI policies were examined. Data on each institution's total research funding, national funding rank, public versus private status, and involvement in clinical research were collected. The authors developed a coding system for categorizing the ICOI policies and used it to code the policies for nine items. Interrater agreement and P values were assessed. Results Only 28/100 (28.0%) institutions had an ICOI policy. ICOI policies varied among the 28 institutions. Having an ICOI policy was positively associated with total research funding and national funding ranking but not with public versus private status or involvement in clinical research. Conclusions Although most U.S. medical schools have policies that address ICOIs, most of the top academic research institutions do not. Federal regulation and guidance may be necessary to encourage institutions to adopt ICOI policies and establish a standard form of ICOI review.

Resnik, D. B., Ariansen, J. L., Jamal, J., & Kissling, G. E. (2016). Institutional Conflict of Interest Policies at U.S. Academic Research Institutions. Academic medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 91(2), 242-6. DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000980 Publisher: https://dx.doi.org/10.1097%2FACM.0000000000000980 HHS Public access: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4731244/

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The Ethical Governance of German Physicians, 1890-1939: Are There Lessons from History? (Papers: Robert Dingwall & Vienna Rozelle | 2011)

The limitations of the traditional historiography of the ethical regulation of biomedical research are becoming increasingly well recognized. A simplistic history has been used to justify a simplistic policy, in the elaboration of regulatory instruments associated with a bureaucracy of administration and enforcement that has acquired its own material... More

The limitations of the traditional historiography of the ethical regulation of biomedical research are becoming increasingly well recognized. A simplistic history has been used to justify a simplistic policy, in the elaboration of regulatory instruments associated with a bureaucracy of administration and enforcement that has acquired its own material interests in self-perpetuation and jurisdictional expansion. The official history of institutionalized ethical regulation sees a clear and self-evident line of descent from the Nazi experiments of World War II to the various legal and quasi-legal instruments that now govern most scientific and, increasingly, social scientific practice. Without regulatory interventions, it is claimed, researchers will revert to barbarism. [colored_box]This version of the "rise of bioethics" tends to place considerable emphasis on the Nuremberg Doctors Trial, and the Nuremberg Code promulgated at its conclusion, and to use these as an "origin myth" that legitimizes its professional project. As a narrative, it says little, for example, about the lengthy gap between the conclusion of the Nuremberg trial in 1948 and the development of regulatory interventions for medical research in the victor countries during the 1960s. It tends not to acknowledge the evidence, from writers like Henry Beecher in the United States and Maurice Pappworth in the United Kingdom, that ethically questionable experiments continued in the victor countries well after World War II, a phenomenon explored further by Tal Bolton in a recent PhD. thesis and her article in this journal issue. However, it also tends to equate an absence of regulation with an absence of ethical concern, despite the evidence from Susan Lederer and Sydney Halpern about the effective operation of informal social controls in the United States before World War II. Most crucially, it neglects Jenny Hazelgroves exploration of the difficulty that the prosecutors faced in framing charges against the Nuremberg defendants because they were unable to point to any clear set of regulations or standards in any country other than Germany that could be said to have been violated. . The publication of further analyses of the pre-World War II German experience provides an additional resource for the critical examination of the claims being made about the importance of formal regulation in the maintenance of ethical standards in biomedical research. This body of work has documented the rise of attempts at ethical research governance in Germany from the late nineteenth century through to the 1930s. In so doing, it may seem to provide us with an opportunity to explore the limits of regulation. Why did it fail to protect the victims of the Nazi medical experiments? Why did it seemingly attract so little international interest, despite Germany's leading role in science and biomedicine over much of this period? However, as a number of influential historians of late nineteenth- and early twentieth- century Germany have observed, the study of this period has suffered from the imposition of narrative arcs, influenced by sociology or political science, that see it only as the precursor to the disaster of the Nazi regime. No actor at the time consciously sought this end for their actions: even the Nazi leadership sought power rather than defeat. Accounts that find a logic in the events from the late nineteenth century to the end of World War II may overlook the unintended consequences of actors dealing with contingent events on the basis of partial information interpreted according to what were contemporaneously considered valid knowledge or theories. It is important, then, to avoid constructing an equally simplistic counter-narrative about the general ineffectiveness of regulation.

Dingwall, R and Rozelle, V (2011) The ethical governance of German physicians, 1890–1939: Are there Lessons from History? Journal of Policy History 23(1): 29-52. http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/16649/1/205167_7323%20Dingwall%20Publisher.pdf

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Pathogenic organization in science: Division of labor and retractions (John P. Walsh | 2018)

Published/Released on November 10, 2018 | Posted by Admin on December 17, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , , , ,

Abstract Science is increasingly a team activity, and the size of the teams has been growing. At the same time, there are concerns about an increasing rate of pathologies in science. The growth of team science suggests the need to look beyond individual-level explanations and focus... More

Abstract Science is increasingly a team activity, and the size of the teams has been growing. At the same time, there are concerns about an increasing rate of pathologies in science. The growth of team science suggests the need to look beyond individual-level explanations and focus on organizational structures and institutional contexts to explain pathologies in science. Drawing on the literature on organizational pathologies, we argue that division of labor may be a key factor contributing to pathologies in science. Furthermore, we examine the effects of high-stakes incentives and of institutional corruption as additional predictors of scientific pathologies. Using retractions as an indicator of pathologies, and drawing on a matched sample of 195 retracted papers and 349 paired papers that were not retracted, we develop indicators of the division of labor in the team that produced a paper and find that the rate of retractions is higher as the division of labor increases (net of team size). Additionally, we find that high-stakes incentives and institutional corruption are also associated with increased retractions. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these findings for science policy, in particular for organizing team science projects. Keywords Organization, Science, Pathologies, Corruption, Incentives, Division of labor

Walsh, J. P., et al. (2019). Pathogenic organization in science: Division of labor and retractions. Research Policy 48(2): 444-461. Publisher: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0048733318302129 Conference: https://appam.confex.com/appam/2018/webprogram/Paper26758.html

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Vulnerability in research subjects: a bioethical taxonomy (Kenneth Kipnis | 2001)

The concept of vulnerability appears to have been grandfathered into the lexicon, lore, and literature of research ethics without undergoing stringent certification. And yet the need for some such notion has long been appreciated. More than 50 years ago, reflecting on the ethical implications of the Nazi medical experiments,... More

The concept of vulnerability appears to have been grandfathered into the lexicon, lore, and literature of research ethics without undergoing stringent certification. And yet the need for some such notion has long been appreciated. More than 50 years ago, reflecting on the ethical implications of the Nazi medical experiments, the authors of the Nuremberg Code emphasized the necessity of the subject’s informed consent, too hastily ruling out, as it quickly became apparent, medical research on children and those with cognitive impairments. In the United States, widely studied episodes such as Willowbrook,1 the Brooklyn Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital Case,2 and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study3 provoked debates that eventually gave birth to our current methods for ensuring the ethical conduct of research. But despite the remarkable circumstances of the subjects involved in those studies—institutionalized children, hospitalized elderly, and impoverished and poorly educated black Alabama males—it is not much of an exaggeration to say that in the minds of many investigators the paradigmatic research subject remains more or less a mature, respectable, moderately well-educated, clearthinking, literate, self-supporting U.S. citizen in good standing—that is, a man who could understand a 12- page consent form and act intelligently on the basis of its contents. While I shall assume in what follows both that the existing guidelines are sufficient to deal ethically with the paradigmatic research subject, and, further, that all those standard protections are reliably in place, the vulnerable research subject nonetheless requires ethical consideration going beyond that baseline. More recently, in the wake of the Nuremberg Code’s shortcomings, systematic attention has been accorded to a motley collection of vulnerable subpopulations. In 1979, for example, the seminal Belmont Report4 briefly considered children, the institutionalized mentally ill, and prisoners, mentioning dependency and compromised capacity for consent as representative hallmarks of vulnerability. There was no effort to be comprehensive. The more recent Federal Regulations on the Protection of Human Subjects (45 CFR 46) implement the requirement that Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) take into account the “special problems of research involving vulnerable populations, such as children, prisoners, pregnant women, mentally disabled persons, or economically or educationally disadvantaged persons” (46–111). Criteria for vulnerability are not discussed although subparts are included with supplementary regulations for some of these groups. Finally, the Final Report of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments,5 after reviewing patterns of unethical misconduct in military research, recommended special protections for enlistees.

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Kipnis K. (2001) Vulnerability in research subjects: a bioethical taxonomy. In: National Bioethics Advisory Commission, editor. Ethical and policy issues in research involving human participants. Bethesda: National Bioethics Advisory Commission. pp. G1–G13. http://www.aapcho.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Kipnis-VulnerabilityinResearchSubjects.pdf

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Respect for Human Vulnerability: The Emergence of a New Principle in Bioethics (Papers: Henk ten Have | 2015)

Published/Released on July 10, 2015 | Posted by Admin on November 30, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , , , , ,

Abstract Vulnerability has become a popular though controversial topic in bioethics, notably since 2000. As a result, a common body of knowledge has emerged (1) distinguishing between different types of vulnerability, (2) criticizing the categorization of populations as vulnerable, and (3) questioning the practical implications. It... More

Abstract Vulnerability has become a popular though controversial topic in bioethics, notably since 2000. As a result, a common body of knowledge has emerged (1) distinguishing between different types of vulnerability, (2) criticizing the categorization of populations as vulnerable, and (3) questioning the practical implications. It is argued that two perspectives on vulnerability, i.e., the philosophical and political, pose challenges to contemporary bioethics discourse: they re-examine the significance of human agency, the primacy of the individual person, and the negativity of vulnerability. As a phenomenon of globalization, vulnerability can only be properly addressed in a global bioethics that takes the social dimension of human existence seriously. Keywords Global bioethics, Globalization, Vulnerability, Research ethics, Philosophy of medicine

ten Have, H. Respect for Human Vulnerability: The Emergence of a New Principle in Bioethics. Bioethical Inquiry (2015) 12: 395. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11673-015-9641-9 Publisher: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11673-015-9641-9

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Rethinking the Vulnerability of Minority Populations in Research (Papers: Wendy Rogers and Margaret Meek Lange | 2013)

Abstract The Belmont Report, produced in 1979 by a United States government commission, includes minority populations among its list of vulnerable research participants. In this article, we consider some previous attempts to understand the vulnerability of minorities in research, and then provide our own account. First we... More

Abstract The Belmont Report, produced in 1979 by a United States government commission, includes minority populations among its list of vulnerable research participants. In this article, we consider some previous attempts to understand the vulnerability of minorities in research, and then provide our own account. First we examine the question of the representation of minorities in research. Then we argue that the best understanding of minorities, vulnerability, and research will begin with a broad understanding of the risk of individual members of minority groups to poor health outcomes. We offer a typology of vulnerability to help with this task. Finally, we show how researchers should be guided by this broad analysis in the design and execution of their research. Vv

Rogers, W., & Lange, M. M. (2013). Rethinking the vulnerability of minority populations in research. American Journal  of Public Health, 103(12), 2141-6.. 2013;103(12). NCBI (Full text available): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3828952/

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Vulnerability in Research Ethics: a Way Forward (Papers: Margaret Meek Lange, et al | 2013)

Published/Released on July 27, 2013 | Posted by Admin on November 30, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

Abstract Several foundational documents of bioethics mention the special obligation researchers have to vulnerable research participants. However, the treatment of vulnerability offered by these documents often relies on enumeration of vulnerable groups rather than an analysis of the features that make such groups vulnerable. Recent attempts... More

Abstract Several foundational documents of bioethics mention the special obligation researchers have to vulnerable research participants. However, the treatment of vulnerability offered by these documents often relies on enumeration of vulnerable groups rather than an analysis of the features that make such groups vulnerable. Recent attempts in the scholarly literature to lend philosophical weight to the concept of vulnerability are offered by Luna and Hurst. Luna suggests that vulnerability is irreducibly contextual and that Institutional Review Boards (Research Ethics Committees) can only identify vulnerable participants by carefully examining the details of the proposed research. Hurst, in contrast, defines the vulnerable as those especially at risk of incurring the wrongs to which all research ethics participants are exposed. We offer a more substantive conception of vulnerability than Luna but one that gives rise to a different rubric of responsibilities from Hurst's. While we understand vulnerability to be an ontological condition of human existence, in the context of research ethics, we take the vulnerable to be research subjects who are especially prone to harm or exploitation. Our analysis rests on developing a typology of sources of vulnerability and showing how distinct sources generate distinct obligations on the part of the researcher. Our account emphasizes that the researcher's first obligation is not to make the research participant even more vulnerable than they already are. To illustrate our framework, we consider two cases: that of a vulnerable population involved in international research and that of a domestic population of people with diminished capacity. Keywords Vulnerability, Research ethics, Alzheimer's Disease, Tenofovir case

Lange, M. M., Rogers, W. and Dodds, S. (2013), Vulnerability in Research Ethics: A Way Forward. Bioethics, 27: 333-340. doi:10.1111/bioe.12032 Publiher (PDF available): https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bioe.12032

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Why bioethics needs a concept of vulnerability (Papers: Wendy Rogers, et al | 2012)

Published/Released on October 08, 2012 | Posted by Admin on November 30, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

Abstract Concern for human vulnerability seems to be at the heart of bioethical inquiry, but the concept of vulnerability is under-theorized in the bioethical literature. The aim of this article is to show why bioethics needs an adequately theorized and nuanced conception of vulnerability. We first... More

Abstract Concern for human vulnerability seems to be at the heart of bioethical inquiry, but the concept of vulnerability is under-theorized in the bioethical literature. The aim of this article is to show why bioethics needs an adequately theorized and nuanced conception of vulnerability. We first review approaches to vulnerability in research ethics and public health ethics, and show that the bioethical literature associates vulnerability with risk of harm and exploitation, and limited capacity for autonomy. We identify some of the challenges emerging from this literature: in particular, how to reconcile universal human vulnerability with a context-sensitive analysis of specific kinds and sources of vulnerability; and how to reconcile obligations to protect vulnerable persons with obligations to respect autonomy. We then briefly survey some of the theoretical resources available within the philosophical literature to address these challenges, and to assist in understanding the conceptual connections between vulnerability and related concepts such as harm, exploitation, needs, and autonomy. We also sketch out a taxonomy of sources and kinds of vulnerability. Finally, we consider the implications for policy evaluation of making vulnerability an explicit and central focus of bioethics. Our investigation is in the form of a broad survey motivating a research agenda rather than a detailed analysis. Keywords Bioethics, Disabilities, Child molestation, Feminism, Public health, Territories, Productivity, Research ethics. Morality, Informed consent

Rogers, W., Mackenzie, C., & Dodds, S. (2012). Why bioethics needs a concept of vulnerability. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics, 5(2), 11-38. doi:10.2979/intjfemappbio.5.2.11 Publisher (PDF available with frre login): https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2979/intjfemappbio.5.2.11?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents

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Resolving authorship disputes by mediation and arbitration (Papers: Zen Faulkes | 2018)

Published/Released on November 16, 2018 | Posted by Admin on November 19, 2018 | Keywords: , , ,

Abstract Background Disputes over authorship are increasing. This paper examines the options that researchers have in resolving authorship disputes. Discussions about authorship disputes often address how to prevent disputes but rarely address how to resolve them. Both individuals and larger research communities are... More

Abstract Background Disputes over authorship are increasing. This paper examines the options that researchers have in resolving authorship disputes. Discussions about authorship disputes often address how to prevent disputes but rarely address how to resolve them. Both individuals and larger research communities are harmed by the limited options for dispute resolution. Main body When authorship disputes arise after publication, most existing guidelines recommend that the authors work out the disputes between themselves. But this is unlikely to occur, because there are often large power differentials between team members, and institutions (e.g., universities, funding agencies) are unlikely to have authority over all team members. Other collaborative disciplines that deal with issues of collaborative creator credit could provide models for scientific authorship. Arbitration or mediation could provide solutions to authorship disputes where few presently exist. Because authors recognize journals’ authority to make decisions about manuscripts submitted to the journal, journals are well placed to facilitate alternative dispute resolution processes. Conclusion Rather than viewing authorship disputes as rare events that must be handled on a case by case basis, researchers and journals should view the potential for disputes as predictable, preventable, and soluble. Independent bodies that can offer alternative dispute resolution services to scientific collaborators and/or journals could quickly help research communities, particularly their most vulnerable members. Keywords Authorship, Alternative dispute resolution

Faulkes, Z. (2018) Resolving authorship disputes by mediation and arbitration. Research Integrity and Peer Review. 3:12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41073-018-0057-z Publisher (Open Access): https://researchintegrityjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41073-018-0057-z

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Research ethics, informed consent and the disempowerment of First Nation peoples (Papers: Juan M Tauri | 2017)

Abstract Recently, Indigenous commentators have begun to analyse the way in which institutional Research Ethics Boards (REBs) engage with Indigenous researchers and participants, respond to Indigenous peoples’ concerns with academic research activities, and scrutinise the ethics proposals of Indigenous scholars. Of particular concern for Indigenous commentators... More

Abstract Recently, Indigenous commentators have begun to analyse the way in which institutional Research Ethics Boards (REBs) engage with Indigenous researchers and participants, respond to Indigenous peoples’ concerns with academic research activities, and scrutinise the ethics proposals of Indigenous scholars. Of particular concern for Indigenous commentators is that the work of REBs often results in the marginalisation of Indigenous approaches to knowledge construction and dissemination, especially in relation to the vexed issue of informed consent. Based on analysis of the results of research with Indigenous researchers and research participants, this paper argues that institutionalised REBs’ preference for ‘universal’ and ‘individualised’ approaches for determining ethical research conduct marginalises Indigenous approaches to ethical research conduct. The paper concludes by calling for a decolonisation of REB processes through recognition of the validity of communal processes for attaining the informed consent of Indigenous research participants. Keywords First Nations, research ethics boards, informed consent, decolonisation

Tauri, J. M. (2018). Research ethics, informed consent and the disempowerment of First Nation peoples. Research Ethics, 14(3), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747016117739935 Publisher (Open Access): https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1747016117739935

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Qualitative Research Ethics in the Big Data Era (Papers: Arielle Hesse, et al | 2018)

Published/Released on November 05, 2018 | Posted by Admin on November 11, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , , , ,

Abstract This article examines the developments that have motivated this special issue on Qualitative Research Ethics in the Big Data Era. The article offers a broad overview of many pressing challenges and opportunities that the Big Data era raises particularly for qualitative research. Big Data has... More

Abstract This article examines the developments that have motivated this special issue on Qualitative Research Ethics in the Big Data Era. The article offers a broad overview of many pressing challenges and opportunities that the Big Data era raises particularly for qualitative research. Big Data has introduced to the social sciences new data sources, new research methods, new researchers, and new forms of data storage that have immediate and potential effects on the ethics and practice of qualitative research. Drawing from a literature review and insights gathered at a National Science Foundation-funded workshop in 2016, we present five principles for qualitative researchers and their institutions to consider in navigating these emerging research landscapes. These principles include (a) valuing methodological diversity; (b) encouraging research that accounts for and retains context, specificity, and marginalized and overlooked populations; (c) pushing beyond legal concerns to address often messy ethical dilemmas; (d) attending to regional and disciplinary differences; and (e) considering the entire lifecycle of research, including the data afterlife in archives or in open-data facilities. Keywords Big Data, qualitative research, research ethics

Hesse, A., Glenna, L., Hinrichs, C., Chiles, R., & Sachs, C. (2018). Qualitative Research Ethics in the Big Data Era. American Behavioral Scientist. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764218805806

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The ‘problem’ of undesigned relationality: Ethnographic fieldwork, dual roles and research ethics (Papers: Kirsten Bell | 2018)

Abstract [colored_box]Perhaps the most unique feature of ethnographic fieldwork is the distinctive form of relationality it entails, where the ethnographer’s identity as a researcher is not fixed in the way typical of most other forms of research. In this paper, I explore how this ‘undesigned relationality’... More

Abstract [colored_box]Perhaps the most unique feature of ethnographic fieldwork is the distinctive form of relationality it entails, where the ethnographer’s identity as a researcher is not fixed in the way typical of most other forms of research. In this paper, I explore how this ‘undesigned relationality’ is understood, both in procedural ethics frameworks and by the different disciplines that have come to claim a stake in the ‘method’ itself. Demonstrating that the ethical issues it entails are primarily conceptualized via the lens of the ‘dual role’, I use this as a means of exploring the ideal relationship between researcher and subject that procedural ethics frameworks are premised upon. I go on to explore the epistemological differences in ways that ethnographers themselves understand and respond to the multiple forms of relationality that characterize fieldwork and the challenge this poses to the possibility of a pan-disciplinary consensus on ethnographic research ethics. . Keywords ethnography, research ethics, dual roles, disciplinarity, relationality .

Bell, K. (2018). The ‘problem’ of undesigned relationality: Ethnographic fieldwork, dual roles and research ethics. Ethnography. https://doi.org/10.1177/1466138118807236

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Should research fraud be a crime? (Zulfiqar A Bhutta and Julian Crane | 2014)

Published/Released on July 15, 2014 | Posted by Admin on October 28, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , ,

Zulfiqar A Bhutta says that criminal sanctions are necessary to deter growing deliberate research misconduct, which can ultimately harm patients. Julian Crane disagrees: he doubts that sanctions will have any deterrent effect and worries that criminalisation would undermine trust

Bhutta, Z. A. and J. Crane (2014).... More

Zulfiqar A Bhutta says that criminal sanctions are necessary to deter growing deliberate research misconduct, which can ultimately harm patients. Julian Crane disagrees: he doubts that sanctions will have any deterrent effect and worries that criminalisation would undermine trust

Bhutta, Z. A. and J. Crane (2014). "Should research fraud be a crime?" BMJ : British Medical Journal 349 Publisher: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g4532

Audio https://api.soundcloud.com/tracks/158806647/download?client_id=LBCcHmRB8XSStWL6wKH2HPACspQlXg2P

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Research with former refugees: Moving towards an ethics in practice (Nisha Thapliyal and Sally Baker | September 2018)

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Text recycling: acceptable or misconduct? (Papers: Stephanie Harriman and Jigisha Patel | 2014)

Published/Released on August 16, 2014 | Posted by Admin on October 10, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , ,

Abstract Text recycling, also referred to as self-plagiarism, is the reproduction of an author’s own text from a previous publication in a new publication. Opinions on the acceptability of this practice vary, with some viewing it as acceptable and efficient, and others as misleading and unacceptable.... More

Abstract Text recycling, also referred to as self-plagiarism, is the reproduction of an author’s own text from a previous publication in a new publication. Opinions on the acceptability of this practice vary, with some viewing it as acceptable and efficient, and others as misleading and unacceptable. In light of the lack of consensus, journal editors often have difficulty deciding how to act upon the discovery of text recycling. In response to these difficulties, we have created a set of guidelines for journal editors on how to deal with text recycling. In this editorial, we discuss some of the challenges of developing these guidelines, and how authors can avoid undisclosed text recycling. The guidelines can be found here: http://media.biomedcentral.com/content/editorial/BMC-text-recycling-editorial_guidelines.pdf Keywords: Text recycling, Self-plagiarism, Publication ethics, Transparency, Guidelines

Harriman, S., & Patel, J. (2014). Text recycling: acceptable or misconduct? BMC Medicine, 12, 148. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-014-0148-8 Publisher (Open Access): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4243367/

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Practical, Epistemological, and Ethical Challenges of Participatory Action Research: A Cross-Disciplinary Review of the Literature (Papers: Danielle Lake and Joel Wendland | 2018)

Published/Released on September 15, 2018 | Posted by Admin on October 9, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , , , , , , , ,

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What information and the extent of information research participants need in informed consent forms: a multi-country survey (Juntra Karbwang, et al | 2018)

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Financial Conflicts of Interest Among Authors of Urology Clinical Practice Guidelines (Papers: Austin Carlisle, et al | September 2018)

Published/Released on May 07, 2018 | Posted by Admin on October 1, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , ,

Abstract Background Recent studies have highlighted the presence of disclosed and undisclosed financial conflicts of interest among authors of clinical practice guidelines. Objective We sought to determine to what extent urology guideline authors receive and report industry payments in accordance with... More

Abstract Background Recent studies have highlighted the presence of disclosed and undisclosed financial conflicts of interest among authors of clinical practice guidelines. Objective We sought to determine to what extent urology guideline authors receive and report industry payments in accordance with the Physician Payment Sunshine Act. Design, setting, and participants We selected the 13 urology guidelines that were published by the American Urological Association (AUA) after disclosure was mandated by the Physician Payment Sunshine Act. Payments received by guideline authors were searched independently by two investigators using the Open Payments database. Outcome measures and statistical analysis Our primary outcome measure was the number of authors receiving payments from industry, stratified by amount thresholds. Our secondary outcome measure was the number of authors with accurate conflict of interest disclosure statements. Results and limitations We identified a total of 54 author disclosures. Thirty-two authors (59.3%) received at least one payment from industry. Twenty (37.0%) received >$10 000 and six (11.1%) received >$50 000. Median total payments were $578 (interquartile range $0–19 228). Twenty (37.0%) disclosure statements were inaccurate. Via Dollars for Docs, we identified $74 195.13 paid for drugs and devices directly related to guideline recommendations. We were limited in our ability to determine when authors began working on guideline panels, as this information was not provided, and by the lack of specificity in Dollars for Docs. Conclusions Many of the AUA guideline authors received payments from industry, some in excess of $50 000. A significant portion of disclosure statements were inaccurate, indicating a need for more stringent enforcement of the AUA disclosure policy. Patient summary Pharmaceutical company payments to doctors have been shown to influence how doctors treat patients. If these doctors are charged with making clinical recommendations to other doctors, in the form of clinical practice guidelines, the issue of industry payments becomes more severe. We found that many urologists on guideline panels receive money from industry and that a significant portion did not disclose all payments received.

Carlisle, A., et al. (2018). "Financial Conflicts of Interest Among Authors of Urology Clinical Practice Guidelines." European Urology 74(3): 348-354. Publisher (Open Access): https://www.europeanurology.com/article/S0302-2838(18)30329-4/fulltext

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Contextualising Merit and Integrity within Human Research (Papers: Ian Pieper and Colin Thomson | 2014)

Abstract The first consideration of any Australian Human Research Ethics Committee should be to satisfy itself that the project before them is worth undertaking. If the project does not add to the body of knowledge, if it does not improve social welfare or individual wellbeing then... More

Abstract The first consideration of any Australian Human Research Ethics Committee should be to satisfy itself that the project before them is worth undertaking. If the project does not add to the body of knowledge, if it does not improve social welfare or individual wellbeing then the use of human participants, their tissue or their data must be questioned. Sometimes, however, committees are criticised for appearing to adopt the role of scientific review committees. The intent of this paper is to provide researchers with an understanding of the ethical importance of demonstrating the merit of their research project and to help them develop protocols that show ethics committees that adequate attention has been paid to this central tenet in dealing ethically with human research participants. Any person proposing human research must be prepared to show that it is worthwhile. This paper will clarify the relationship between research merit and integrity, research ethics and the responsibilities of human research ethics committees. Keywords Human Research, National Statement, Australian Code, Integrity, Article

Pieper, I. & Thomson, C.J.H. (2011) Contextualising Merit and Integrity within Human Research, Monash Bioethics Review  29: 39. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03351329 Publisher: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF03351329

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Justice in Human Research Ethics (Papers: Ian Pieper and Colin Thomson | 2014)

Abstract One of the core values to be applied by a body reviewing the ethics of human research is justice. The inclusion of justice as a requirement in the ethical review of human research is relatively recent and its utility had been largely unexamined until debates... More

Abstract One of the core values to be applied by a body reviewing the ethics of human research is justice. The inclusion of justice as a requirement in the ethical review of human research is relatively recent and its utility had been largely unexamined until debates arose about the conduct of international biomedical research in the late 1990s. The subsequent amendment of authoritative documents in ways that appeared to shift the meaning of conceptions of justice generated a great deal of controversy. Another difficulty has been that both the theory and the substance of justice that are applied by researchers or reviewers can be frequently seen to be subjective. Both the concept of justice — whether distributive or commutative — and what counts as a just distribution or exchange — are given different weight and meanings by different people. In this paper, the origins and more recent debates about the requirement to consider justice as a criterion in the ethical review of human research are traced, relevant conceptions of justice are distinguished, and the manner in which they can be applied meaningfully in the ethical review of all human research is identified. We also explain the way that these concepts are articulated in, and the intent and function of, specific paragraphs of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research (2007). The National Statement identifies a number of issues that should be considered when a human research ethics committee is reviewing the justice aspects of an application. We provide guidance to researchers as to how they can show that there is a fair distribution of burdens and benefits in the participant experience and the research outcomes. We also provide practical guidance to researchers on how to think through issues of justice so that they can demonstrate that the design of their research projects meets this ethical requirement. Keywords Human Research, National Statement, Human Research Ethics, Distributive Justice

Pieper, I. & Thomson, C.J.H. (2013) Justice in Human Research Ethics. Monash Bioethics Review (2013) 31: 99. Publisher: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF03351345#citeas

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Research ethics versus ethical approval: A response to Tomaselli (Papers: Katie Fitzpatrick | 2017)

Keyan Tomaselli’s opinion piece provides a great deal of food for thought about a wide range of issues in research. I want to pick up here on one point he makes, which I think is worth further consideration: the issue of research ethics and approvals in ethnography. He notes... More

Keyan Tomaselli’s opinion piece provides a great deal of food for thought about a wide range of issues in research. I want to pick up here on one point he makes, which I think is worth further consideration: the issue of research ethics and approvals in ethnography. He notes that “bio-medical ethical models are imposed on anthropologists” and he raises concerns about how universities engage in the gate keeping of research approvals. This is an important point and one that might usefully be explored further in future issues of this journal. It seems to me that ethical approval has, indeed, been divorced from the academic field of research ethics, especially in qualitative research. As Tomaselli notes, we might question the right of “organisations [to] claim jurisdiction over the right of adult individuals or researchers to make their own respective choices”. I think we might also seek to uphold the rights of young people—not only adults—to make decisions about the kinds of research they engage in and how their voices are represented therein. Ethical issues in ethnographic research are, indeed, complex, locally and culturally specific, and are difficult to regulate. Part of this difficulty lies in the fact that ethnographic research is, by definition, relational. Romero and Walker (2010, 209) observe that “some of the most prevalent methodological and ethical questions in contemporary ethnographic research concern whose voice is heard and how it is represented”. They note that “in theory and in practice, Institutional Review Boards require that the identity of individuals be protected and remain anonymous or at very least confidential” [sic] (223). Many ethnographers adhere to this approach because they are committed to protecting the identities of their participants, especially when the research concerns personal, legal, sexual or other sensitive materials. However, an assumption that people’s identities should and will be obscured in research representations is also problematic, especially when this decision is made prior to even entering the field.

Fitzpartrick, Katie. 2017. “ Research ethics versus ethical approval: A response to Tomaselli.” The Ethnograhic Edge  1, (1): 21– 33. http://dx.doi.org/10.14663/tee.v1i1.20 Publisher: http://dx.doi.org/10.14663/tee.v1i1.20

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‘Telling our story… Creating our own history’: caregivers’ reasons for participating in an Australian longitudinal study of Indigenous children (Papers: Katherine Ann Thurber, et al | 2018)

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Indigenous Data Sovereignty: University Institutional Review Board Policies and Guidelines and Research with American Indian and Alaska Native Communities (Papers: Tennille L. Marley | 2018)

Abstract American Indians, Alaska Native, and other Indigenous people throughout the world have undergone and continue to experience research abuses. Qualitative data such as intellectual property, Indigenous knowledge, interviews, cultural expressions including songs, oral histories/stories, ceremonies, dances, and other texts, images, and recordings are at risk... More

Abstract American Indians, Alaska Native, and other Indigenous people throughout the world have undergone and continue to experience research abuses. Qualitative data such as intellectual property, Indigenous knowledge, interviews, cultural expressions including songs, oral histories/stories, ceremonies, dances, and other texts, images, and recordings are at risk of exploitation, appropriation, theft, and misrepresentation and threaten the cultural sovereignty of American Indians, Alaska Native, and other Indigenous people. These issues are potentially magnified with the increasing use of big data. Partly as a result of past and current research abuse, the Indigenous data sovereignty, the control, ownership, and governance of research and data, is growing. In this article, I discuss American Indian political sovereignty, cultural sovereignty, and Indigenous data sovereignty, with an emphasis on qualitative data sovereignty. In addition, I explore whether Arizona’s public universities—Northern Arizona University, Arizona State University, and University of Arizona—policies and guidelines support Indigenous data sovereignty and the extent to which they align with the Arizona Board of Regent’s tribal consultation policy that governs relations between the three Arizona universities and Arizona American Indian nations. Overall expectations, requirements, and processes do not go far enough in supporting Indigenous data sovereignty. Although each university has specific research policies that follow the Arizona Board of Regent’s tribal consultation policy, the university guidelines differ in scope in term of supporting Indigenous data sovereignty. In addition, none of the policies address qualitative data sharing, including those in big data sets. Based on the findings I make several recommendations for researchers, including supporting the Indigenous sovereignty movement and to reconsider big data use and past positions about qualitative data ownership and sharing with regard to American Indians, Alaska Native, and other Indigenous people. Keywords Indigenous data sovereignty, American Indian and Alaska Native, Indigenous people, qualitative data

Marley, T. L. "Indigenous Data Sovereignty: University Institutional Review Board Policies and Guidelines and Research with American Indian and Alaska Native Communities." American Behavioral Scientist 0(0): 0002764218799130. Publisher: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0002764218799130#articleCitationDownloadContainer

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Compensation for research-related harm: The implications of Venter v Roche Products (Pty) Limited and Others for research ethics committees (Papers: Ann Strode & Priya P. Singh | 2014)

Published/Released on August 01, 2014 | Posted by Admin on September 13, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , , , , ,

Background. The issue of what type of compensation a research participant would be entitled to in a clinical trial when they have signed an informed consent document excluding certain forms of compensation recently came before our courts in the matter of Venter v Roche Products (Pty)... More

Background. The issue of what type of compensation a research participant would be entitled to in a clinical trial when they have signed an informed consent document excluding certain forms of compensation recently came before our courts in the matter of Venter v Roche Products (Pty) Limited and Others (Case No. 12285/08). In this case, the court had to consider whether the plaintiff, Mr Venter, was entitled to claim for non-medical costs such as pain and suffering, loss of income and general damages, even though the informed-consent document expressly excluded such claims. Objectives. To set out the facts, issues and judgment in the case, concluding with a discussion of the implications of the judgment for research ethics committees (RECs). Methods. Critical review of a judgment of the Western Cape High Court. Results. The court concluded that Mr Venter’s application for damages should be dismissed because he had voluntarily agreed to the limited compensation as set out in the informed consent form that had been approved by both the local RECs and the Medicines Control Council. Conclusions. The Venter case has shown that delictual claims for research-related injuries will not be successful if plaintiffs have agreed to limit their own rights through signing an informed-consent form that limits compensation. This places an important obligation on RECs to ensure that they carefully review compensation clauses in informed-consent documents and that these are made clear to potential research participants.

Strode, A., & Singh, P. (2014). Compensation for research-related harm: The implications of Venter v Roche Products (Pty) Limited and Others for research ethics committees. South African Medical Journal, 104(11), 759-761. doi:10.7196/SAMJ.8596 http://www.samj.org.za/index.php/samj/article/view/8596/6379

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Research ethics in the Kalahari: issues, contradictions and concerns (Papers: Keyan Tomaselli | 2017)

Abstract The effects of ethical clearance or institutional review board practices are discussed in relation to the experiences of academic field researchers on the one hand and indigenous research participants and/or co-generators of knowledge on the other. Ethical procedures such as protection (do no harm), control... More

Abstract The effects of ethical clearance or institutional review board practices are discussed in relation to the experiences of academic field researchers on the one hand and indigenous research participants and/or co-generators of knowledge on the other. Ethical procedures such as protection (do no harm), control (micromanaging methods) and exploitation (taking ownership) are discussed in relation to researcher experiences in southern Africa. Researcher–researched relations, researcher and subject alienation, ethics creep and the clash of ontologies are examined. Some tentative solutions are proposed. Keywords: ethics, gatekeepers, indigenous rights, institutional review board, Kalahari, ≠Khomani Bushmen

Tomaselli, K.G. (2017): Ethical Procedures? A Critical Intervention: The sacred, the profane, and the planet. The Ethnographic Edge, [S.l.], v. 1, n. 1, p. 3-16. Publisher: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02560046.2016.1267253

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Too dangerous for fieldwork? The challenge of institutional risk-management in primary research on conflict, violence and ‘Terrorism’ (Papers: Jeffrey Sluka | July 2018)

Published/Released on July 16, 2018 | Posted by Admin on September 3, 2018 | Keywords: , ,

Research on conflict and ‘terrorism’ is confronted by an expanding range of daunting ethical, methodological, and institutional challenges. One of these is the increasing involvement of university ethics and fieldwork safety committees in ‘managing’ researcher safety and security as an issue which requires institutional oversight, control, and approval. This... More

Research on conflict and ‘terrorism’ is confronted by an expanding range of daunting ethical, methodological, and institutional challenges. One of these is the increasing involvement of university ethics and fieldwork safety committees in ‘managing’ researcher safety and security as an issue which requires institutional oversight, control, and approval. This paper contributes to contemporary reflection on and conversations about social sciences fieldwork in what is deemed to be an increasingly dangerous world. It focuses specifically on the increasing application of institutional ethics and safety review processes to ‘dangerous’ fieldwork on socio-political violence. While these new restrictions are clothed in the language or idiom of ethics and worker safety and security, a political analysis suggests that these committees represent powerful institutions of censorship and control, a serious challenge to academic freedom, and even movement towards the recolonisation of social science research. This paper describes and addresses this threat, and offers a constructive proposal for potentially responding by the development of risk assessment and management protocols which may contribute both to researcher survival in perilous field sites and help researchers to negotiate the necessary approval by university ethics and safety committees.

luka, J. A. (2018). Too dangerous for fieldwork? The challenge of institutional risk-management in primary research on conflict, violence and ‘Terrorism’. Contemporary Social Science, 1-17. doi:10.1080/21582041.2018.1498534 Publisher: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21582041.2018.1498534 ResearchGate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326437314

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Research with, not about, communities – Ethical guidance towards empowerment in collaborative research, a report for the TRUST project – TRUST (Kate Chatfield, et al | July 2018)

Executive Summary and Introduction Community engagement is an ethical imperative (a ‘must’) for researchers operating globally. Research participants, their local communities and research partners in international locations should be equal stakeholders1 in the pursuit of research-related gains.2,3 [colored_box]In the 1990s, community engagement became prominent as the new... More

Executive Summary and Introduction Community engagement is an ethical imperative (a ‘must’) for researchers operating globally. Research participants, their local communities and research partners in international locations should be equal stakeholders1 in the pursuit of research-related gains.2,3 [colored_box]In the 1990s, community engagement became prominent as the new guiding light of public health efforts. Involving communities in research and health-improvement programs led to better results than government-led programs alone.4 At the same time, the emerging need to protect indigenous communities in genetic research led Canadian Charles Weijer to demand a fifth principle in bioethics5,6: protection for communities.7 The individualistic nature of existing research ethics principles, stemming from US origins with its traditional emphasis upon individual autonomy was thus questioned. Asian and African ethicists added their voices to highlight the importance of respect for communities, as well as individuals.8,9 . This report provides guidance on community engagement in research from the perspective of the four TRUST values: fairness, respect, care and honesty. . These values were identified by a global group of experts as the cornerstones of equitable research partnerships between high-income country (HIC) and low- and middle-income country (LMIC) research partners in any discipline10. The group included representatives from two vulnerable populations that carry a high burden of research: Kenyan sex workers and San indigenous peoples of Southern Africa. The guidance is suitable for all who support vulnerable populations involved in research projects, including civil society organisations, whether or not they are carrying out the research projects themselves. .

Chatfield, K. et al. (2018) Research with, not about, communities - Ethical guidance towards empowerment in collaborative research, a report for the TRUST project.  http://trust-project.eu/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/TRUST-Community-Participation-in-Research-Final.pdf

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(UK) UK House of Commons committee wants to make sure “university investigations into research misconduct are handled appropriately” – Retraction Watch (C. K. Gunsalus | July 2018)

Published/Released on July 10, 2018 | Posted by Admin on August 25, 2018 | Keywords: , ,

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A survey on data reproducibility and the effect of publication process on the ethical reporting of laboratory research (Papers: Delphine R Boulbes, et al | 2018)

Published/Released on April 11, 2018 | Posted by Admin on August 24, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

Abstract Purpose: The successful translation of laboratory research into effective therapies is dependent upon the validity of peer-reviewed publications. However, several publications in recent years suggested that published scientific findings could only be reproduced 11-45% of the time. Multiple surveys attempted to elucidate the fundamental causes... More

Abstract Purpose: The successful translation of laboratory research into effective therapies is dependent upon the validity of peer-reviewed publications. However, several publications in recent years suggested that published scientific findings could only be reproduced 11-45% of the time. Multiple surveys attempted to elucidate the fundamental causes of data irreproducibility and underscored potential solutions; more robust experimental designs, better statistics, and better mentorship. However, no prior survey has addressed the role of the review and publication process on honest reporting. Experimental Design: We developed an anonymous online survey intended for trainees involved in bench research. The survey included questions related to mentoring/career development, research practice, integrity and transparency, and how the pressure to publish, and the publication process itself influence their reporting practices. Results: Responses to questions related to mentoring and training practices were largely positive, although an average of ~25% didn't seem to receive optimal mentoring. 39.2% revealed having been pressured by a principle investigator or collaborator to produce "positive" data. 62.8% admitted that the pressure to publish influences the way they report data. The majority of respondents did not believe that extensive revisions significantly improved the manuscript while adding to the cost and time invested. Conclusions: This survey indicates that trainees believe that the pressure to publish impacts honest reporting, mostly emanating from our system of rewards and advancement. The publication process itself impacts faculty and trainees and appears to influence a shift in their ethics from honest reporting ("negative data") to selective reporting, data falsification, or even fabrication.

Boulbes, D. R., et al. (2018). "A survey on data reproducibility and the effect of publication process on the ethical reporting of laboratory research." Clinical Cancer Research. http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2018/04/11/1078-0432.CCR-18-0227

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Ethical Considerations When Using Social Media for Evidence Generation (Papers: Gabrielle Berman, et al | 2018)

ABSTRACT There are significant ethical implications in the adoption of technologies and the production and use of the resulting data for evidence generation. The potential benefits and opportunities need to be understood in conjunction with the potential risks and challenges. When using social media to directly... More

ABSTRACT There are significant ethical implications in the adoption of technologies and the production and use of the resulting data for evidence generation. The potential benefits and opportunities need to be understood in conjunction with the potential risks and challenges. When using social media to directly engage children and their communities, or when establishing partnerships with these organizations for data collection and analysis, adoption of these technologies and their resultant data should not be exclusively driven by short-term necessity but also by the long-term needs of our younger partners. When engaging with social media and indeed most technology, thoughtfulness, reflection and ongoing interrogation is required. This paper examines the benefits, risks and ethical considerations when undertaking evidence generation: (a) using social media platforms and (b) using third-party data collected and analysed by social media services. It is supplemented by practical tools to support reflection on the ethical use of social media platforms and social media data.

Berman, Gabrielle; Powell, James; Garcia Herranz, Manuel (2018). Ethical Considerations When Using Social Media for Evidence Generation, Innocenti Discussion Papers no. 2018-01, UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti, Florence https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/967-ethical-considerations-when-using-social-media-for-evidence-generation-discussion.html

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Ethical Considerations When Using Geospatial Technologies for Evidence Generation (Papers: Gabrielle Berman, et al | 2018)

ABSTRACT Geospatial technologies have transformed the way we visualize and understand social phenomena and physical environments. There are significant advantages in using these technologies and data however, their use also presents ethical dilemmas such as privacy and security concerns as well as the potential for stigma... More

ABSTRACT Geospatial technologies have transformed the way we visualize and understand social phenomena and physical environments. There are significant advantages in using these technologies and data however, their use also presents ethical dilemmas such as privacy and security concerns as well as the potential for stigma and discrimination resulting from being associated with particular locations. Therefore, the use of geospatial technologies and resulting data needs to be critically assessed through an ethical lens prior to implementation of programmes, analyses or partnerships. This paper examines the benefits, risks and ethical considerations when undertaking evidence generation using geospatial technologies. It is supplemented by a checklist that may be used as a practical tool to support reflection on the ethical use of geospatial technologies.

Berman, Gabrielle; de la Rosa, Sara; Accone, Tanya (2018). Ethical Considerations When Using Geospatial Technologies for Evidence Generation, Innocenti Discussion Papers no. 2018-02, UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti, Florence https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/971-ethical-considerations-when-using-geospatial-technologies-for-evidence-generation.html

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Self-Determination in Health Research: An Alaska Native Example of Tribal Ownership and Research Regulation (Vanessa Y. Hiratsuka, et al | 2017)

Abstract

[colored_box]Alaska Native (AN) and American Indian (AI) people are underrepresented in health research, yet many decline to participate in studies due to past researcher misconduct. Southcentral Foundation (SCF), an Alaska Native-owned and operated health care organization, is transforming... More

Abstract

[colored_box]Alaska Native (AN) and American Indian (AI) people are underrepresented in health research, yet many decline to participate in studies due to past researcher misconduct. Southcentral Foundation (SCF), an Alaska Native-owned and operated health care organization, is transforming the relationship between researchers and the tribal community by making trust and accountability required features of health research in AN/AI communities. In 1998, SCF assumed ownership from the federal government of health services for AN/AI people in south central Alaska and transformed the health system into a relationship-based model of care. This change reimagines how researchers interact with tribal communities and established community oversight of all health research conducted with AN/AI people in the region. We describe the SCF research review process, which requires tribal approval of the research concept, full proposal, and dissemination products, as well as local institutional review board approval, and a researcher-signed contract. This review evaluates research through the lens of tribal principles, practices, and priorities. The SCF example provides a framework for other tribes and organizations seeking to reshape the future of health research in AN/AI communities. .

Keywords: community review, Alaska Native, tribal, ethics, Native American, research, research conduct, trust, accountability .

Hiratsuka, V. Y., Beans, J. A., Robinson, R. F., Shaw, J. L., Sylvester, I., & Dillard, D. A. (2017). Self-determination in health research: An Alaska Native example of Tribal ownership and research regulation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(11), 1324. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111324 Publisher (Open Access): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5707963/

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Conducting Research with Tribal Communities: Sovereignty, Ethics, and Data-Sharing Issues (Papers: Anna Harding, et al | 2011)

Abstract

Background: When conducting research with American Indian tribes, informed consent beyond conventional institutional review board (IRB) review is needed because of the potential for adverse consequences at a community or governmental level that are unrecognized by academic researchers.

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Abstract

Background: When conducting research with American Indian tribes, informed consent beyond conventional institutional review board (IRB) review is needed because of the potential for adverse consequences at a community or governmental level that are unrecognized by academic researchers.

Objectives: In this article, we review sovereignty, research ethics, and data-sharing considerations when doing community-based participatory health–related or natural-resource–related research with American Indian nations and present a model material and data-sharing agreement that meets tribal and university requirements.

Discussion: Only tribal nations themselves can identify potential adverse outcomes, and they can do this only if they understand the assumptions and methods of the proposed research. Tribes must be truly equal partners in study design, data collection, interpretation, and publication. Advances in protection of intellectual property rights (IPR) are also applicable to IRB reviews, as are principles of sovereignty and indigenous rights, all of which affect data ownership and control.

Conclusions: Academic researchers engaged in tribal projects should become familiar with all three areas: sovereignty, ethics and informed consent, and IPR. We recommend developing an agreement with tribal partners that reflects both health-related IRB and natural-resource–related IPR considerations.

Keywords: American Indian, data sharing, informed consent, intellectual property, IRB, research ethics, sovereignty, tribal

Harding A, Harper B, Stone D, O’Neill C, Berger P, et al. (2011) Conducting Research with Tribal Communities: Sovereignty, Ethics, and Data-Sharing Issues. Environmental Health Perspectives.  120: 6–10. pmid:21890450 Publisher (Open Access): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3261947/

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Moving Forward on Consent Practices in Australia (Papers: Rebekah E. McWhirter & Lisa Eckstein | 2018))

Abstract Allowing persons to make an informed choice about their participation in research is a pre-eminent ethical and legal requirement. Almost universally, this requirement has been addressed through the provision of written patient information sheets and consent forms. Researchers and others have raised concerns about the... More

Abstract Allowing persons to make an informed choice about their participation in research is a pre-eminent ethical and legal requirement. Almost universally, this requirement has been addressed through the provision of written patient information sheets and consent forms. Researchers and others have raised concerns about the extent to which such forms—particularly given their frequent lengthiness and complexity—provide participants with the tools and knowledge necessary for autonomous decision-making. Concerns are especially pronounced for certain participant groups, such as persons with low literacy and Indigenous persons. Multimedia strategies have the potential to usefully supplement current consent practices in Australia; however, information is needed about the need for supplementary consent practices, along with drivers for and barriers against adoption. This study initiates the required evidence base through an audit of informed consent practices for medical research in the Australian state of Tasmania to assess the need for, and current uptake of, supplementary consent strategies. Drivers for and barriers against adoption of multimedia consent practices were explored in detail through interviews with key stakeholders, including researchers, HREC chairs and members, and research participants, including Indigenous participants. Keywords Informed consent, Research ethics, Multimedia consent, Consent apps

McWhirter, RE and Eckstein, L (2018) Moving Forward on Consent Practices in Australia. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry. Published online: 12 March 2018 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11673-018-9843-z

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Opinion: Is science really facing a reproducibility crisis, and do we need it to? (Papers: Daniele Fanelli | 2018)

Published/Released on March 09, 2018 | Posted by Admin on July 14, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , ,

Abstract [colored_box]Efforts to improve the reproducibility and integrity of science are typically justified by a narrative of crisis, according to which most published results are unreliable due to growing problems with research and publication practices. This article provides an overview of recent evidence suggesting that this... More

Abstract [colored_box]Efforts to improve the reproducibility and integrity of science are typically justified by a narrative of crisis, according to which most published results are unreliable due to growing problems with research and publication practices. This article provides an overview of recent evidence suggesting that this narrative is mistaken, and argues that a narrative of epochal changes and empowerment of scientists would be more accurate, inspiring, and compelling. . Keywords reproducible, researcher, isis, integrity, bias. misconduct .

Fanelli, D. (2018). "Opinion: Is science really facing a reproducibility crisis, and do we need it to?" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Publisher (Open Access): http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2018/03/08/1708272114

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Research, Ethics and Indigenous Peoples: An Australian Indigenous perspective on three threshold considerations for respectful engagement (Ambelin Kwaymullina | 2016)

Abstract [colored_box]Indigenous peoples have long critiqued the harmful effects of Eurocentric research processes upon Indigenous cultures and communities. This paper—which is grounded in the author's knowledge and experience as an Aboriginal Australian academic—examines three threshold considerations relevant to non-Indigenous scholars who seek to enter... More

Abstract [colored_box]Indigenous peoples have long critiqued the harmful effects of Eurocentric research processes upon Indigenous cultures and communities. This paper—which is grounded in the author's knowledge and experience as an Aboriginal Australian academic—examines three threshold considerations relevant to non-Indigenous scholars who seek to enter into respectful research relationships with Indigenous peoples or knowledges. The first is the question of whether the research should be conducted at all. The second is positionality and how this affects research. The third is the need for scholars to comprehensively inform themselves about ethical research principles, including in relation to free, prior and informed consent, and Indigenous cultural and intellectual property. .

Keywords research, colonialism, sovereignty, free, prior and informed consent, ethics, Indigenous peoples .

Kwaymullina, A. (2016). "Research, Ethics and Indigenous Peoples: An Australian Indigenous perspective on three threshold considerations for respectful engagement." AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples 12(4): 437-449. Publisher: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.20507/AlterNative.2016.12.4.8#articleCitationDownloadContainer

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Research ethics committees in the Pacific Islands: gaps and opportunities for health sector strengthening (Papers: Justin T Denholm, et al | 2017)

Abstract There has been a range of developments in recent years to stimulate increasing public health research activity throughout the Pacific. Development of local capacity for ethics committee review and oversight is, however, frequently underdeveloped. This is reflected in the number of Pacific Island nations where... More

Abstract There has been a range of developments in recent years to stimulate increasing public health research activity throughout the Pacific. Development of local capacity for ethics committee review and oversight is, however, frequently underdeveloped. This is reflected in the number of Pacific Island nations where ethics committees have not been established or where only informal processes exist for ethics review and oversight. This is problematic for the optimal development of relevant and culturally appropriate research, and building up local ethics committees should be part of continued research development in the Pacific. Three areas in which local ethics committees may add value are 1) offering better capacity to reflect local priorities, 2) providing broader benefits for research capacity building, and 3) assisting to strengthen systems beyond research ethics. This article considers benefits and challenges for ethics committees in the Pacific, and suggests directions for regional development to further strengthen public health research activity. Keywords: research ethics, Pacific Islands, operational research, public health, ethics

J. T. Denholm, K. Bissell, K. Viney, A. M. Durand, H. L. Cash, C. Roseveare, O. E. Merilles, Jr., A. D. Harries and S. Biribo (2017) Research ethics committees in the Pacific Islands: gaps and opportunities for health sector strengthening. Public Health Action. 2017 Mar 21; 7(1): 6–9. Published online 2017 Mar 21. doi: 10.5588/pha.16.0076 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5526493/

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Why all randomised controlled trials produce biased results (Papers: Alexander Krauss | March 2018)

Abstract Background: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are commonly viewed as the best research method to inform public health and social policy. Usually they are thought of as providing the most rigorous evidence of a treatment’s effectiveness without strong assumptions, biases and limitations. Objective:... More

Abstract Background: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are commonly viewed as the best research method to inform public health and social policy. Usually they are thought of as providing the most rigorous evidence of a treatment’s effectiveness without strong assumptions, biases and limitations. Objective: This is the first study to examine that hypothesis by assessing the 10 most cited RCT studies worldwide. Data sources: These 10 RCT studies with the highest number of citations in any journal (up to June 2016) were identified by searching Scopus (the largest database of peer-reviewed journals). Results: This study shows that these world-leading RCTs that have influenced policy produce biased results by illustrating that participants’ background traits that affect outcomes are often poorly distributed between trial groups, that the trials often neglect alternative factors contributing to their main reported outcome and, among many other issues, that the trials are often only partially blinded or unblinded. The study here also identifies a number of novel and important assumptions, biases and limitations not yet thoroughly discussed in existing studies that arise when designing, implementing and analysing trials. Conclusions: Researchers and policymakers need to become better aware of the broader set of assumptions, biases and limitations in trials. Journals need to also begin requiring researchers to outline them in their studies. We need to furthermore better use RCTs together with other research methods. Key messages

  • RCTs face a range of strong assumptions, biases and limitations that have not yet all been thoroughly discussed in the literature.
  • This study assesses the 10 most cited RCTs worldwide and shows that trials inevitably produce bias.
  • Trials involve complex processes – from randomising, blinding and controlling, to implementing treatments, monitoring participants etc. – that require many decisions and steps at different levels that bring their own assumptions and degree of bias to results.
Keywords: Randomised controlled trial, RCT, reproducibility crisis, replication crisis, bias, statistical bias, evidence-based medicine, evidence-based practice, reproducibility of results, clinical medicine, research design

Krauss, A. (2018) Why all randomised controlled trials produce biased results. Annals of Medicine. 50:4, 312-322, DOI: 10.1080/07853890.2018.1453233 Publisher (Open Access): https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07853890.2018.1453233

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Implementing the Tri-Council Policy on Ethical Research Involving Indigenous Peoples in Canada: So, How’s That Going in Mi’kma’ki? (Carla Moore | April 2017)

Abstract The 2010 edition of the Tri-Council Policy Statement on Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans introduced a new chapter, titled "Research Involving the First Nations, Inuit and Métis Peoples of Canada." The goal of our study was to explore how this chapter is being implemented... More

Abstract The 2010 edition of the Tri-Council Policy Statement on Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans introduced a new chapter, titled "Research Involving the First Nations, Inuit and Métis Peoples of Canada." The goal of our study was to explore how this chapter is being implemented in research involving Mi’kmaw communities in Nova Scotia. Qualitative data from four groups—health researchers, research ethics board representatives, financial services administrators, and Mi’kmaw community health directors—revealed that while the chapter is useful in navigating this ethical space, there is room for improvement. The challenges they encountered were not insurmountable; with political will from the academy and with guidance from Indigenous community health and research leaders solutions to these barriers can be achieved.

Moore, C. , Castleden, H. E. , Tirone, S. , Martin, D. (2017). Implementing the Tri-Council Policy on Ethical Research Involving Indigenous Peoples in Canada: So, How’s That Going in Mi’kma’ki?. The International Indigenous Policy Journal, 8(2) . Retrieved from: http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/iipj/vol8/iss2/4 DOI: 10.18584/iipj.2017.8.2.4 Publisher (Open Access): https://ir.lib.uwo.ca/iipj/vol8/iss2/4/

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Administering Colonial Science: Nutrition Research and Human Biomedical Experimentation in Aboriginal Communities and Residential Schools, 1942-1952 (Papers: Ian Mosvy | 2013)

Between 1942 and 1952, some of Canada’s leading nutrition experts, in cooperation with various federal departments, conducted an unprecedented series of nutritional studies of Aboriginal communities and residential schools. The most ambitious and perhaps best known of these was the 1947-1948 James Bay Survey... More

Between 1942 and 1952, some of Canada’s leading nutrition experts, in cooperation with various federal departments, conducted an unprecedented series of nutritional studies of Aboriginal communities and residential schools. The most ambitious and perhaps best known of these was the 1947-1948 James Bay Survey of the Attawapiskat and Rupert’s House Cree First Nations. Less well known were two separate long-term studies that went so far as to include controlled experiments conducted, apparently without the subjects’ informed consent or knowledge, on malnourished Aboriginal populations in Northern Manitoba and, later, in six Indian residential schools. This article explores these studies and experiments, in part to provide a narrative record of a largely unexamined episode of exploitation and neglect by the Canadian government. At the same time, it situates these studies within the context of broader federal policies governing the lives of Aboriginal peoples, a shifting Canadian consensus concerning the science of nutrition, and changing attitudes towards the ethics of biomedical experimentation on human beings during a period that encompassed, among other things, the establishment of the Nuremberg Code of experimental research ethics.
[colored_box]IN MARCH 1942, and after months of planning, a group of scientific and medical researchers travelled by bush plane and dog sled to the Cree communities of Norway House, Cross Lake, God’s Lake Mine, Rossville, and The Pas in Northern Manitoba. The trip was jointly sponsored by Indian Affairs, the New York-based Milbank Memorial Fund, the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) and the Hudson’s Bay Company but had been spearheaded by Indian Affairs Branch Superintendent of Medical Services Dr. Percy Moore and RCAF Wing Commander Dr. Frederick Tisdall – Canada’s leading nutrition expert and the co-inventor of the infant food Pablum. The goal was to “study the state of nutrition of the Indian by newly developed medical procedures,” which meant that – in addition to collecting information on local subsistence patterns – the research team conducted detailed physical examinations, blood tests, and x-rays on nearly 400 Aboriginal residents of these communities.1 But even before they began to administer their battery of medical tests, the researchers were immediately struck by the frightening toll that malnutrition and hunger appeared to be taking. At both Norway House and Cross Lake, they reported that, “while most of the people were going about trying to make a living, they were really sick enough to be in bed under treatment and that if they were white people, they would be in bed and demanding care and medical attention.” Following a visit to the homes of some of the elderly residents of Norway House at the request of the Chief and Council, moreover, researchers found that “conditions were deplorable where the old people were almost starved and were plainly not get- ting enough food to enable them to much more than keep alive.” .

Mosby, I. (2013) “Administering Colonial Science: Nutrition Research and Human Biomedical Experimentation in Aboriginal Communities and Residential Schools, 1942-1952” Histoire sociale/Social History XLVI, 91 (Mai/May 2013), 615-642. Publisher (Open Access): https://hssh.journals.yorku.ca/index.php/hssh/article/viewFile/40239/36424

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Should we try to manage non-financial interests? (Papers: Miriam Wiersma, et al)

Ideological biases influence medical research and practice and should be disclosed and managed, say Miriam Wiersma and colleagues. But Marc Rodwin argues that many of these interests are widespread and inherent to life and cannot be avoided or eliminated Yes—Miriam Wiersma, Ian... More

Ideological biases influence medical research and practice and should be disclosed and managed, say Miriam Wiersma and colleagues. But Marc Rodwin argues that many of these interests are widespread and inherent to life and cannot be avoided or eliminated Yes—Miriam Wiersma, Ian Kerridge, Wendy Lipworth [colored_box]Non-financial conflicts of interest in medical research and practice, which include those of a political, ideological, individual, or religious nature,1 2 are often overlooked, denied, and even defined out of existence.3 4 The focus is directed instead towards financial interests, such as those stemming from drug industry sponsorship of research, or payments to doctors. But dismissing non-financial conflicts of interest is naive, empirically unfounded, and dangerous. It is also unnecessary because non-financial conflicts can be managed with nuance and sensitivity. . Strong drivers Research shows, and common sense dictates, that people are driven at least as much by non-financial motives as they are by financial gain. These motives, which include the desire to protect ourselves or our family from harm, to reinforce our deeply held beliefs and values, to reciprocate gifts or favours, to attain status, and to avoid social disapproval, unquestionably exert a powerful influence on human behaviour.5 6 As argued by Cappola and Fitzgerald in relation to academia, “the prospect of fame may be even more seductive than fortune.”7 .

Wiersma, M., Kerridge, I,. Lipworth, W., Rodwin, M.. (2018). "Should we try to manage non-financial interests?" BMJ 361. Publisher: https://www.bmj.com/content/361/bmj.k1240

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Evolving friendships and shifting ethical dilemmas: Fieldworkers’ experiences in a short term community based study in Kenya (Papers: Dorcas M. Kamuya, et al | 2013)

Abstract [colored_box]Fieldworkers (FWs) are community members employed by research teams to support access to participants, address language barriers, and advise on culturally appropriate research conduct. The critical role that FWs play in studies, and the range of practical and ethical dilemmas associated with their involvement, is... More

Abstract [colored_box]Fieldworkers (FWs) are community members employed by research teams to support access to participants, address language barriers, and advise on culturally appropriate research conduct. The critical role that FWs play in studies, and the range of practical and ethical dilemmas associated with their involvement, is increasingly recognised. In this paper, we draw on qualitative observation and interview data collected alongside a six month basic science study which involved a team of FWs regularly visiting 47 participating households in their homes. The qualitative study documented how relationships between field workers and research participants were initiated, developed and evolved over the course of the study, the shifting dilemmas FWs faced and how they handled them. Even in this one case study, we see how the complex and evolving relationships between fieldworkers and study participants had important implications for consent processes, access to benefits and mutual understanding and trust. While the precise issues that FWs face are likely to depend on the type of research and the context in which that research is being conducted, we argue that appropriate support for field workers is a key requirement to strengthen ethical research practice and for the long term sustainability of research programmes.

Kamuya, D., Theobald, S.J., Munywoki, P.K., Koech, D., Geissler, W.P. and Molyneux, S.C. (2013) Evolving friendships and shifting ethical dilemmas: Fieldworkers’ experiences in a short term community based study in Kenya. Developing World Bioethics 13(1): 1-9. Publisher (Open Access): https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/dewb.12009

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A scoping review of comparisons between abstracts and full reports in primary biomedical research (Papers: Guowei Li, et al | December 2017)

Published/Released on December 29, 2017 | Posted by Admin on April 28, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

Abstract

Background Evidence shows that research abstracts are commonly inconsistent with their corresponding full reports, and may mislead readers. In this scoping review, which is part... More

Abstract

Background Evidence shows that research abstracts are commonly inconsistent with their corresponding full reports, and may mislead readers. In this scoping review, which is part of our series on the state of reporting of primary biomedical research, we summarized the evidence from systematic reviews and surveys, to investigate the current state of inconsistent abstract reporting, and to evaluate factors associated with improved reporting by comparing abstracts and their full reports.

Methods We searched EMBASE, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and CINAHL from January 1st 1996 to September 30th 2016 to retrieve eligible systematic reviews and surveys. Our primary outcome was the level of inconsistency between abstracts and corresponding full reports, which was expressed as a percentage (with a lower percentage indicating better reporting) or categorized rating (such as major/minor difference, high/medium/low inconsistency), as reported by the authors. We used medians and interquartile ranges to describe the level of inconsistency across studies. No quantitative syntheses were conducted. Data from the included systematic reviews or surveys was summarized qualitatively.

Results Seventeen studies that addressed this topic were included. The level of inconsistency was reported to have a median of 39% (interquartile range: 14% - 54%), and to range from 4% to 78%. In some studies that separated major from minor inconsistency, the level of major inconsistency ranged from 5% to 45% (median: 19%, interquartile range: 7% - 31%), which included discrepancies in specifying the study design or sample size, designating a primary outcome measure, presenting main results, and drawing a conclusion. A longer time interval between conference abstracts and the publication of full reports was found to be the only factor which was marginally or significantly associated with increased likelihood of reporting inconsistencies.

Conclusions This scoping review revealed that abstracts are frequently inconsistent with full reports, and efforts are needed to improve the consistency of abstract reporting in the primary biomedical community.

Keywords AbstractScoping reviewInconsistent reportingDeficiencyAccuracyDiscrepancySpin

Li, G., Abbade, LPF., Nwosu, I., Jin, Y., Leenus, A., Maaz, M., Wang, M., Bhatt, M., Zielinski, L., Sanger, N., Bantoto, B., Luo, C., Shams, I., Shahid, H., Chang, Y., Sun, G., Mbuagbaw, L., Samaan, Z., Levine, MAH., Adachi, JD. & Thabane, L (2017) A scoping review of comparisons between abstracts and full reports in primary biomedical research. BMC Medical Research Methodology. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-017-0459-5 Publisher (Open Access): https://bmcmedresmethodol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12874-017-0459-5#Bib1

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Ethical challenges inherent in the evaluation of an American Indian/Alaskan Native Circles of Care project – American Journal of Community Psychology (David A. Julian, et al | December 2017)

Abstract This article provides first‐person accounts of ethical issues inherent in an evaluation of the Native American Indian Center of Central Ohio (NAICCO) Circles of Care project. Circles of Care is a three‐year, infrastructure development program funded through the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration... More

Abstract This article provides first‐person accounts of ethical issues inherent in an evaluation of the Native American Indian Center of Central Ohio (NAICCO) Circles of Care project. Circles of Care is a three‐year, infrastructure development program funded through the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) which is part of the federal Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). The grant program is for American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) tribes and urban Indian communities and includes a strong emphasis on community engagement and community ownership. The Native American Indian Center of Central Ohio received a Circles of Care grant in the fifth cohort of the program. The first author (Project Evaluator) presents views that typically represent a western approach to evaluation, while the second author (Project Director) presents a Native perspective. Ethical issues are defined as well as the authors’ efforts to address these concerns. Keywords Ethical issues, Culturally responsive evaluation

Julian, D.A., Smith, T., & Hunt, A. (2017). Ethical challenges inherent in the evaluation of an American Indian/Alaskan Native Circles of Care project. American Journal of Community Psychology, 60, 336–345. Publisher: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajcp.12192

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Costly Collaborations: The Impact of Scientific Fraud on Co‐Authors’ Careers (Papers: Philippe Mongeona and Vincent Larivièreb | January 2015)

Published/Released on February 28, 2015 | Posted by Admin on April 14, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , , , ,

Abstract [colored_box]Over the last few years, several major scientific fraud cases have shocked the scientific community. The number of retractions each year has also increased tremendously, especially in the biomedical field, and scientific misconduct accounts for approximately more than half of those retractions. It is assumed... More

Abstract [colored_box]Over the last few years, several major scientific fraud cases have shocked the scientific community. The number of retractions each year has also increased tremendously, especially in the biomedical field, and scientific misconduct accounts for approximately more than half of those retractions. It is assumed that co-authors of retracted papers are affected by their colleagues’ misconduct, and the aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence of the effect of retractions in biomedical research on co-authors’ research careers. Using data from the Web of Science (WOS), we measured the productivity, impact and collaboration of 1,123 co-authors of 293 retracted articles for a period of five years before and after the retraction. We found clear evidence that collaborators do suffer consequences of their colleagues’ misconduct, and that a retraction for fraud has higher consequences than a retraction for error. Our results also suggest that the extent of these consequences is closely linked with the ranking of co-authors on the retracted paper, being felt most strongly by first authors, followed by the last authors, while the impact is less important for middle authors. . Keywords: Scientific misconduct, retractions, collaboration, bibliometrics .

Mongeon, P. and Larivière, V. (2016), Costly Collaborations: The Impact of Scientific Fraud on Co‐Authors' Careers. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 67: 535-542. doi:10.1002/asi.23421 Wiley One Library: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/asi.23421

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Ethical Challenges and Some Solutions for Field Experiments (Papers: Scott Desposato | November 2014)

Published/Released on November 03, 2014 | Posted by Admin on April 13, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , , , , ,

Abstract The recent controversy over a field experiment conducted in Montana during an election has many political scientists debating the ethics of interventions in “the real world”. Much of this discussion focuses on the fact that the experiment may have violated electoral law and may not... More

Abstract The recent controversy over a field experiment conducted in Montana during an election has many political scientists debating the ethics of interventions in “the real world”. Much of this discussion focuses on the fact that the experiment may have violated electoral law and may not have had all required IRB reviews. However, absent some technical shortcomings, the study is identical to dozens of others that have been run all over the world. The bigger questions here are whether we can ethically run experiments that could affect millions of subjects and bystanders without their consent. I discuss some of the features that distinguish political science from other fields and over some suggestions for best practices in field experiments.

Desposato, S. (2014) 'Ethical Challenges and some Solutions for Field Experiments'. Accessed 13 April 2018 http://www.desposato.org/ethicsfieldexperiments.pdf

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Dealing with Un(Expected) Ethical Dilemma: Experience from the Field (Papers: Zaleha Othman and Fathilatul Zakimi Hamid | 2018)

Abstract Despite the growing interest in qualitative research and discussion of ethics, there has been little focus in the literature on the specific ethical dilemmas faced by researchers. In this paper, we share our fieldwork experiences regarding the ethical dilemmas that we encountered while doing research... More

Abstract Despite the growing interest in qualitative research and discussion of ethics, there has been little focus in the literature on the specific ethical dilemmas faced by researchers. In this paper, we share our fieldwork experiences regarding the ethical dilemmas that we encountered while doing research on a sensitive topic. Specifically, we share some of the ethical dilemmas, that is, concerning confidentiality, anonymity, legitimacy, controversial data, interpretation and off -the-record data, which emerged from the research. Most importantly, this paper shares ideas concerning how researchers might deal with ethical issues while preserving their integrity in the research process. Overall, this paper suggests approaches that qualitative researchers can adopt when doing research on sensitive topics. the paper contributes towards closing an existing gap in the literature, making visible the challenges frequently faced by qualitative researchers, that is, the vulnerability of researchers while preserving research integrity. Finally, this paper concludes with the suggestion that ethical dilemmas are part of the research process in doing qualitative research. However, it is suggested that future research should focus on ethical issues from the perspective of the researchers as well as the respondents. Keywords Ethical Dilemma, Research, Sensitive, Qualitative Research, Con dential, Anonymity

Othman Z. & Abdul Hamid, F. (2018). Dealing with Un(Expected) Ethical Dilemma: Experience from the Field. The Qualitative Report, 23(4), 733-741. Retrieved from https://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol23/iss4/1 Publisher (Creative Commons): https://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol23/iss4/1/

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The State of Peer Review in Criminology: Literary Theory, Perceptions, and the Catch-22 Metaphor of Peer Review (Papers: Ethan M. Higgins | December 2017)

Published/Released on December 29, 2017 | Posted by Admin on March 31, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

Abstract Considerable theoretical and empirical attention has been devoted to the practice of peer review across various disciplines in the previous couple decades. Recently, Raymond Paternoster and Robert Brame indicated that it is necessary for criminology to follow suit and begin to provide a critical inquiry of the... More

Abstract Considerable theoretical and empirical attention has been devoted to the practice of peer review across various disciplines in the previous couple decades. Recently, Raymond Paternoster and Robert Brame indicated that it is necessary for criminology to follow suit and begin to provide a critical inquiry of the blind review model. Literary theory and writing studies have examined literate practices for decades and empirical research has identified that literate practices, like peer review, are interactional and co-constructed across discourse communities. The unique character of peer review in criminology remains unknown however. Discussions with 40 of criminology’s most influential scholars provides an opportunity to begin constructing a broad context of criminology’s peer review by challenging universal knowledge through individual experiences.

Higgins, E. M. (2017). "The State of Peer Review in Criminology: Literary Theory, Perceptions, and the Catch-22 Metaphor of Peer Review." Journal of Criminal Justice Education: 1-24. Publisher: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10511253.2017.1420809

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How to counter undeserving authorship (Papers: Stefan Eriksson, et al)

Published/Released on February 22, 2018 | Posted by Admin on March 28, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

Abstract [colored_box]The average number of authors listed on contributions to scientific journals has increased considerably over time. While this may be accounted for by the increased complexity of much research and a corresponding need for extended collaboration, several studies suggest that the prevalence of non-deserving authors on research... More

Abstract [colored_box]The average number of authors listed on contributions to scientific journals has increased considerably over time. While this may be accounted for by the increased complexity of much research and a corresponding need for extended collaboration, several studies suggest that the prevalence of non-deserving authors on research papers is alarming. In this paper a combined qualitative and quantitative approach is suggested to reduce the number of undeserving authors on academic papers: 1) ask scholars who apply for positions to explain the basics of a random selection of their co-authored papers, and 2) in bibliometric measurements, divide publications and citations by the number of authors. . Keywords: Ethics,  authorship,  scientific publishing,  honorary authors, bibliometrics .

Eriksson, S., Godskesen, T., Andersson, L., Helgesson, G. (2018). How to counter undeserving authorship. Insights. 31(1), p.1. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1629/uksg.395 Publisher (Open Access): https://insights.uksg.org/articles/10.1629/uksg.395/

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Are predatory journals undermining the credibility of science? A bibliometric analysis of citers (Papers: Tove Faber Frandsen | September 2017)

Published/Released on September 25, 2017 | Posted by Admin on March 24, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , ,

Abstract [colored_box]Warnings against publishing in predatory journals are plentiful and so are the suggested solutions to the problem. The existing studies all confirm that authors of articles published in potential predatory journals are typically young, inexperienced and from Asia or Africa. To what extend we can... More

Abstract [colored_box]Warnings against publishing in predatory journals are plentiful and so are the suggested solutions to the problem. The existing studies all confirm that authors of articles published in potential predatory journals are typically young, inexperienced and from Asia or Africa. To what extend we can consider the problem negligible is determined by the impact they are having on the scholarly communication in terms of publications and citations. The existing literature can provide more information about the former than the latter. This paper is an analysis of potential predatory journals as well as potential poor scientific standards journals. Citations to 124 potential predatory journals and poor scientific standards journals are looked up in Scopus and the citing authors analysed in regards to geographic location, publications and citations. The results show that the characteristics of the citing author indeed resemble those of the publishing author. Implications for recommendations and future research are discussed. . Keywords Predatory journals, Citing authors, Citation analysis .

Frandsen TF. (2017) Are predatory journals undermining the credibility of science? A bibliometric analysis of citers. Scientometrics.  pp1-16 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-017-2520-x Publisher: https://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11192-017-2520-x

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Designing integrated research integrity training: authorship, publication, and peer review (Papers: Mark Hooper, et al)

Abstract

This paper describes the experience of an academic institution, the Queensland University of Technology (QUT), developing training courses about research integrity practices in authorship, publication, and Journal Peer Review. The importance of providing research integrity training... More

Abstract

This paper describes the experience of an academic institution, the Queensland University of Technology (QUT), developing training courses about research integrity practices in authorship, publication, and Journal Peer Review. The importance of providing research integrity training in these areas is now widely accepted; however, it remains an open question how best to conduct this training. For this reason, it is vital for institutions, journals, and peak bodies to share learnings.

We describe how we have collaborated across our institution to develop training that supports QUT’s principles and which is in line with insights from contemporary research on best practices in learning design, universal design, and faculty involvement. We also discuss how we have refined these courses iteratively over time, and consider potential mechanisms for evaluating the effectiveness of the courses more formally.

Hooper, M., Barbour V., Walsh A.., Bradbury, S. and Jacobs J. (2018) Designing integrated research integrity training: authorship, publication, and peer review. Research Integrity and Peer Review (2018) 3:2 https://doi.org/10.1186/s41073-018-0046-2 Publisher (Open Access): https://researchintegrityjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41073-018-0046-2?platform=hootsuitehttps://researchintegrityjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41073-018-0046-2?platform=hootsuite

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Summary of research for participants and the Health Research Authority ‘An ethnographic study of National Health Service Research Ethics Committees : mapping ethics review’ (Papers: Dr Julie Morton | 2017)

Published/Released on April 03, 2017 | Posted by Admin on March 8, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

Background to the study Ethical regulation in general and ethics review more specifically are perceived as challenging for researchers and have been subject to critique from both qualitative and quantitative research paradigms. Existing critique clusters around the following themes:

Bureaucracy and its impact... More

Background to the study Ethical regulation in general and ethics review more specifically are perceived as challenging for researchers and have been subject to critique from both qualitative and quantitative research paradigms. Existing critique clusters around the following themes:

Bureaucracy and its impact on research. Authors here suggest that there are unacceptable delays in receiving decisions on ethics in review or that the requirements of review are excessive, unachievable and constitute a barrier to research. (Dingwall, 2006; Hammersley, 2010; Stewart et al (2008).

Dominance of quantitative research paradigms. There is perceived lack of understanding of qualitative research and quantitative ‘bias’ (Burrr and Reynolds (2010); Murphy and Dingwall, 2007; Hammersley, 2009, 2010). Alongside critics of the system, particularly in the social sciences, other commentators have identified the potential educative value of engaging with review systems (Wiles,2012; Guillemin and Gillam, 2004; Israel and Hay, 2006) despite acknowledging some of the (historic) limitations in relation to qualitative research paradigms.

Centrality of the informed consent requirement. This has been problematised from a range of perspectives which view it as unachievable in some methodologies, as necessary but problematic, or as an overly bureaucratic requirement which makes it informed but not necessarily genuine (O’Neill, 2003). The shortcomings of procedural consent in medicine and biomedical contexts and which also relate to consent in research ethics have been highlighted by philosophers (O’Neill 2003; Kittay, 2007; Manson and O’Neil, 2007) while sociologists have commented on the potential privileging of consent over other ethical considerations and described informed consent as an ‘ethical panacea’ (Corrigan, 2003). Furthermore, the importance of context in consent (Greenhough, 2007) and the need for it to be seen as an ongoing process rather than a ‘on-off’ event (Corrigan, 2016) has also been highlighted.

Procedure and principles. Concerns with the overly-procedural nature of review in general is criticism of the principlist approaches which inform the review process. Hammersley (2015) claims that judgements are derived in a ‘quasi- logical way from given principles’ (p445).

Gaps in existing research The literature review evidenced the paucity of discussion about and inquiry into how reviewers in RECs are involved in the review process. Existing accounts of review and the role of consent have not explored how reviewers’ activities are carried out, where procedures and principles are enacted and where judgements about research take place. Exceptions are Hedgecoe (2008; 2009; 2012) in the United Kingdom and Laura Stark on Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) (2012 and 2013) in the United States. Conclusion Much is claimed about the barriers and limitations which the review of ethics presents to researchers, however, there is little evidence which starts from the standpoint of committee members and explores how the work of review is accomplished in the everyday contexts in which decisions are made. Sheehan (2013) has responded to criticisms of the functioning of RECs as over-generalised and therefore inaccurate. He argues that critique requires evidence and this is not always apparent in the arguments for changes in the current system of ethics review. This research provides detailed investigation into RECs to discover how their work is achieved. The focus of the study was NHSRECs which are ‘flagged’ to review studies which involved participants who may lack capacity to consent. This meant that reviewers had undertaken additional training on the Mental Capacity Act 2005.

Morton, JW 2017, Summary of research for participants and the Health Research Authority ‘An ethnographic study of National Health Service Research Ethics Committees : mapping ethics review’ Dr Julie Morton, April 2017 , Project Report, University of Salford. (Unpublished) Institutional reprint (Open Access): http://usir.salford.ac.uk/45160/

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Ubuntu Ethics (Papers: Philip Ogochukwu Ujomudike | 2015)

Published/Released on November 24, 2015 | Posted by Admin on March 4, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , , , , , ,

Abstract This is an entry on ubuntu ethics. The idea is to develop an endogenous African conception of ubuntu as an ethical construct. We attempt to use ubuntu to countermand the current dominant social paradigm (DSP) of hatred, intolerance, abuse of... More

Abstract This is an entry on ubuntu ethics. The idea is to develop an endogenous African conception of ubuntu as an ethical construct. We attempt to use ubuntu to countermand the current dominant social paradigm (DSP) of hatred, intolerance, abuse of human rights, dehumanization, exploitation, authoritarianism, poverty, and oppression that plague the human race at the national and international levels. This work proposes a conception of ubuntu as a value system built upon the application of some key moral and democratic values for liberation and transformation. Specifically, ubuntu ethics is defined as a set of values central among which are reciprocity, common good, peaceful relations, emphasis on human dignity, and the value of human life as well as consensus, tolerance, and mutual respect. These features are to operate at the national level. We also argue for a possibility utilizing ubuntu ethical correlates as materials for establishing stable and viable human relations within the international system or global order. Our aim is to conceptualize ubuntu as an ethical idea and praxis, as well as to situate it as an ethical ideal all with a view to making humans better and thus tackling in a systematic manner, our natural and man-made existential predicaments.

Keywords Ubuntu, Communalism, Community, Human person, Humanity, Dignity, Moral values 

Ujomudike P.O. (2015) Ubuntu Ethics. In: ten Have H. (eds) Encyclopedia of Global Bioethics. Springer. http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-3-319-05544-2_428-1.pdf

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The Ethics of Predatory Journals (Papers: Alexander McLeod | 2016)

Published/Released on December 30, 2016 | Posted by Admin on March 2, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , ,

Abstract Predatory journals operate as vanity presses, typically charging large submission or publication fees and requiring little peer review. The consequences of such journals are wide reaching, affecting the integrity of the legitimate journals they attempt to imitate, the reputations of the departments, colleges, and universities... More

Abstract Predatory journals operate as vanity presses, typically charging large submission or publication fees and requiring little peer review. The consequences of such journals are wide reaching, affecting the integrity of the legitimate journals they attempt to imitate, the reputations of the departments, colleges, and universities of their contributors, the actions of accreditation bodies, the reputations of their authors, and perhaps even the generosity of academic benefactors. Using a stakeholder analysis, our study of predatory journals suggests that most stakeholders gain little in the short run from such publishing and only the editors or owners of these journals benefit in the long run. We also discuss counter-measures that academic and administrative faculty can employ to thwart predatory publishing.

McLeod A, Savage A & Simkin MG (2016) The Ethics of Predatory Journals. Journal of Business Ethics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-016-3419-9 Publisher: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10551-016-3419-9

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The concept of ‘vulnerability’ in research ethics: an in-depth analysis of policies and guidelines (Dearbhail Bracken-Roche, et al | April 2017)

Abstract

Background The concept of vulnerability has held a central place in research ethics guidance since its introduction in the United States Belmont Report in 1979. It signals mindfulness for researchers and research ethics boards to... More

Abstract

Background The concept of vulnerability has held a central place in research ethics guidance since its introduction in the United States Belmont Report in 1979. It signals mindfulness for researchers and research ethics boards to the possibility that some participants may be at higher risk of harm or wrong. Despite its important intended purpose and widespread use, there is considerable disagreement in the scholarly literature about the meaning and delineation of vulnerability, stemming from a perceived lack of guidance within research ethics standards. The aim of this study was to assess the concept of vulnerability as it is employed in major national and international research ethics policies and guidelines.
Methods We conducted an in-depth analysis of 11 (five national and six international) research ethics policies and guidelines, exploring their discussions of the definition, application, normative justification and implications of vulnerability.
Results Few policies and guidelines explicitly defined vulnerability, instead relying on implicit assumptions and the delineation of vulnerable groups and sources of vulnerability. On the whole, we found considerable richness in the content on vulnerability across policies, but note that this relies heavily on the structure imposed on the data through our analysis.
Conclusions Our results underscore a need for policymakers to revisit the guidance on vulnerability in research ethics, and we propose that a process of stakeholder engagement would well-support this effort.
Keywords: Research ethics, Vulnerable populations, Vulnerability, Research policy, Ethics policy, Research oversight

Bracken-Roche, D., Bell, E., Macdonald, M. E., & Racine, E. (2017). The concept of “vulnerability” in research ethics: an in-depth analysis of policies and guidelines. Health Research Policy and Systems15, 8. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12961-016-0164-6 Publisher (Open Access): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5297186/

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A Multi-dimensional Investigation of the Effects of Publication Retraction on Scholarly Impact (Papers: Xin Shuai, et al | January 2016)

Abstract [colored_box]Over the past few decades, the rate of publication retractions has increased dramatically in academia. In this study, we investigate retractions from a quantitative perspective, aiming to answer two fundamental questions. One, how do retractions influence the scholarly impact... More

Abstract [colored_box]Over the past few decades, the rate of publication retractions has increased dramatically in academia. In this study, we investigate retractions from a quantitative perspective, aiming to answer two fundamental questions. One, how do retractions influence the scholarly impact of retracted papers, authors, and institutions? Two, does this influence propagate to the wider academic community through scholarly associations? Specifically, we analyzed a set of retracted articles indexed in Thomson Reuters Web of Science (WoS), and ran multiple experiments to compare changes in scholarly impact against a control set of non-retracted articles, authors, and institutions. We further applied the Granger Causality test to investigate whether different scientific topics are dynamically affected by retracted papers occurring within those topics. Our results show two key findings: first, the scholarly impact of retracted papers and authors significantly decreases after retraction, and the most severe impact decrease correlates to retractions based on proven purposeful scientific misconduct; second, this retraction penalty does not seem to spread through the broader scholarly social graph, but instead has a limited and localized effect. Our findings may provide useful insights for scholars or science committees to evaluate the scholarly value of papers, authors, or institutions related to retractions. .

Shuai, X., Rollins, J., Moulinier, I., Custis, T., Edmunds, M., & Schilder, F. (2017).  A Multidimensional Investigation of the Effects of Publication Retraction on Scholarly Impact. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 68(9), 2225-2236. doi: 10.1002/asi.23826. Publisher (Open Access): https://arxiv.org/abs/1602.09123

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Understanding the complexities of retractions (Amy Riegelman and Caitlin Bakker | January 2018)

Recommended resources

Reasons for retracted publications range from honest errors made by authors or publishers to research misconduct (e.g., falsified data, fraudulent peer review). A retraction represents a status change of a publication in the scholarly literature. Other examples of status changes... More

Recommended resources

Reasons for retracted publications range from honest errors made by authors or publishers to research misconduct (e.g., falsified data, fraudulent peer review). A retraction represents a status change of a publication in the scholarly literature. Other examples of status changes include correction or erratum. A retraction could be initiated by many parties, including authors, institutions, or journal editors. The U.S. National Library of Medicine annually reports on the number of retracted publications indexed within PubMed. While the overall rate of retractions is still very small, retractions have increased considerably in the last decade from 97 retracted articles in 2006 to 664 in 2016.1

[colored_box]As librarians help users navigate research platforms and maintain awareness of publication status changes, it is important to understand both the publishing and discovery landscape. Guidelines exist to help publishers and platforms identify retractions, but a recent study found inconsistent representations of retractions across various platforms.2 Another consideration is when scholars export citations or full-text articles out of various discovery platforms to personal libraries (e.g., Mendeley, DropBox). . Philip Davis studied retracted articles residing in personal libraries and nonpublisher websites. Among the findings, Mendeley libraries contained many retracted articles, and Davis concluded that this decentralized access without automated status updates “may come with the cost of promoting incorrect, invalid, or untrustworthy science.”3 .
RIEGELMAN, Amy; BAKKER, Caitlin. Understanding the complexities of retractions: Recommended resources.College & Research Libraries News, [S.l.], v. 79, n. 1, p. 38. ISSN 2150-6698. Available at: <https://crln.acrl.org/index.php/crlnews/article/view/16865/18491>. doi:https://doi.org/10.5860/crln.79.1.38. Publisher (Open Access): https://crln.acrl.org/index.php/crlnews/article/view/16865/18491
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Identifying and Mitigating Risk of Violence in the Scientific Workplace (Papers: Renée Binder, et al | 2017)

Published/Released on December 01, 2017 | Posted by Admin on February 13, 2018 | Keywords: , , , ,

 Forensic psychiatrists can have an important role in helping to improve safety in the scientific workplace by evaluating the potential for violence and develop- ing strategies to mitigate the risk. Forensic psychiatrists engage in violence risk assessment in both criminal and civil settings.1 In... More

 Forensic psychiatrists can have an important role in helping to improve safety in the scientific workplace by evaluating the potential for violence and develop- ing strategies to mitigate the risk. Forensic psychiatrists engage in violence risk assessment in both criminal and civil settings.1 In fact, core competencies of forensic psychiatry fellowships include being able to opine about risks of reoffending and making decisions about hospitalization and release. In addition, forensic psychiatrists develop skills in protecting their personal safety as they work with potentially dangerous evaluees and work in correctional settings.

[colored_box]In contrast to psychiatrists' experience and expertise, of psychiatrists within the academic setting, scientists rarely, if ever, have the proper skills to identify or mitigate risk in the workplace. There may be a lack of awareness that warning signs occur and often precede violent acts.2 Similarly, non–mental health clinicians are typically not trained in assessing and mitigating risk of violence. . The authors of this article work as Deans and Director of Academic Affairs at a large research university. They are often consulted by leaders, faculty, staff, and trainees about problematic behaviors exhibited in the clinical and scientific workplace. One of the authors (R.B.) is also a forensic psychiatrist and has been able to develop training and consultation for the dean's office about recognizing and mitigating risk. As violence in the scientific workplace receives more attention, forensic psychiatrists should expect to be called on for their expertise on this matter... .

 Binder, R., Garcia, P., Johnson, B. and Fuentes-Afflick, E. (2017). "Identifying and Mitigating Risk of Violence in the Scientific Workplace." Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online 45(4): 400-403. Publisher (Open Access): http://jaapl.org/content/45/4/400

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Authorship and citation manipulation in academic research (Papers: Eric A. Fong and Allen W. Wilhite | 2017)

Published/Released on December 06, 2017 | Posted by Admin on February 12, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

Abstract [colored_box]Some scholars add authors to their research papers or grant proposals even when those individuals contribute nothing to the research effort. Some journal editors coerce authors to add citations that are not pertinent to their work and some authors pad their reference lists with superfluous... More

Abstract [colored_box]Some scholars add authors to their research papers or grant proposals even when those individuals contribute nothing to the research effort. Some journal editors coerce authors to add citations that are not pertinent to their work and some authors pad their reference lists with superfluous citations. How prevalent are these types of manipulation, why do scholars stoop to such practices, and who among us is most susceptible to such ethical lapses? This study builds a framework around how intense competition for limited journal space and research funding can encourage manipulation and then uses that framework to develop hypotheses about who manipulates and why they do so. We test those hypotheses using data from over 12,000 responses to a series of surveys sent to more than 110,000 scholars from eighteen different disciplines spread across science, engineering, social science, business, and health care. We find widespread misattribution in publications and in research proposals with significant variation by academic rank, discipline, sex, publication history, co-authors, etc. Even though the majority of scholars disapprove of such tactics, many feel pressured to make such additions while others suggest that it is just the way the game is played. The findings suggest that certain changes in the review process might help to stem this ethical decline, but progress could be slow. .

Fong EA, Wilhite AW (2017) Authorship and citation manipulation in academic research. PLoS ONE 12(12): e0187394. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187394 Publisher (Open Access): http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0187394

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Social and Communicative Functions of Informed Consent Forms in East Asia and Beyond (Papers: Go Yoshizawa, et al | 2017)

Abstract The recent research and technology development in medical genomics has raised new issues that are profoundly different from those encountered in traditional clinical research for which informed consent was developed. Global initiatives for international collaboration and public participation in genomics research now face an increasing... More

Abstract The recent research and technology development in medical genomics has raised new issues that are profoundly different from those encountered in traditional clinical research for which informed consent was developed. Global initiatives for international collaboration and public participation in genomics research now face an increasing demand for new forms of informed consent which reflect local contexts. This article analyzes informed consent forms (ICFs) for genomic research formulated by four selected research programs and institutes in East Asia – the Medical Genome Science Program in Japan, Universiti Sains Malaysia Human Research Ethics Committee in Malaysia, and the Taiwan Biobank and the Taipei Medical University- Joint Institutional Review Board in Taiwan. The comparative text analysis highlights East Asian contexts as distinct from other regions by identifying communicative and social functions of consent forms. The communicative functions include re-contact options and offering interactive support for research participants, and setting opportunities for family or community engagement in the consent process. This implies that informed consent cannot be validated solely with the completion of a consent form at the initial stage of the research, and informed consent templates can facilitate interactions between researchers and participants through (even before and after) the research process. The social functions consist of informing participants of possible social risks that include genetic discrimination, sample and data sharing, and highlighting the role of ethics committees. Although international ethics harmonization and the subsequent coordination of consent forms may be necessary to maintain the quality and consistency of consent process for data-intensive international research, it is also worth paying more attention to the local values and different settings that exist where research participants are situated for research in medical genomics. More than simply tools to gain consent from research participants, ICFs function rather as a device of social communication between research communities and civic communities in liaison with intermediary agents like ethics committees, genetic counselors, and public biobanks and databases.

Keywords: medical genomics, consent documents, group consent, family consent, community engagement

Yoshizawa G, Sasongko TH, Ho C-H and Kato K (2017) Social and Communicative Functions of Informed Consent Forms in East Asia and Beyond. Frontiers in Genetics. 8:99. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2017.00099 Publisher (Open Access): http://www.ea.sinica.edu.tw/UploadFile/files/Social%20and%20Communicativ....

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Consent for data on consent (Mollie Gerver | 2015)

Published/Released on December 28, 2014 | Posted by Admin on February 8, 2018 | Keywords: , , ,

[colored_box]There are instances where the provider of an intervention, such as surgery, has failed to obtain necessary informed consent from the recipient of the intervention. Perhaps a surgeon has failed to warn the patient that she may go into a coma, or even be killed, from the surgery. Sometimes,... More

[colored_box]There are instances where the provider of an intervention, such as surgery, has failed to obtain necessary informed consent from the recipient of the intervention. Perhaps a surgeon has failed to warn the patient that she may go into a coma, or even be killed, from the surgery. Sometimes, as a result of this intervention, the recipient cannot give informed consent to researchers for the release of their personal data precisely because of the intervention. If they are in a coma, they cannot be reached. Sometimes, this personal data itself can prove that the provider of the intervention failed to obtain informed consent for the intervention. For example, a personal file may include a consent form that does not include warnings about the risk of falling into a coma from the surgery. Paradoxically, those who cannot give informed consent for the disclosure of their personal data on an intervention may have been especially ill-informed about the repercussions of the intervention. In such instances, should researchers ever use the data and disclose the data in their research? In an attempt to demonstrate when this dilemma may be relevant, and how it may be solved, I will present a real-world case of this dilemma in my own empirical research on refugees who agreed to repatriate to their countries of origin from Israel. I will consider what theories on consent, if any, can help us resolve this dilemma

Gerver, Mollie (2015) Consent for data on consent. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 18 (4). pp. 799-816. Publisher: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/64012/1/__lse.ac.uk_storage...

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Rethinking Informed Consent in Biobanking and Biomedical Research: a Taiwanese Aboriginal Perspective and the Implementation of Group Consultation (Papers: Chih-hsing Ho | 2017)

Published/Released on December 02, 2017 | Posted by Admin on February 1, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Abstract The current informed consent mechanism is based mainly on the rationale of individualism, particularly for its emphasis on autonomy and self-determination. However, in biobanking and genetic research, research findings may pose a risk of harm to the collective, quite aside from a particular individual. Under... More

Abstract The current informed consent mechanism is based mainly on the rationale of individualism, particularly for its emphasis on autonomy and self-determination. However, in biobanking and genetic research, research findings may pose a risk of harm to the collective, quite aside from a particular individual. Under this circumstance, individual consent needs to be supplemented by other mechanisms, such as group consent obtained from the relevant group or community. In Taiwan, the inclusion of Taiwanese aborigines in biobanking and genetic research challenges the conventional wisdom of individual consent-taking, which overlooks the significance of collective involvement in decision-making. This paper discusses the rationale of the group consent requirement in Taiwan, which seeks to include Taiwanese aborigines’ perspectives, and the related measures that have been pronounced to implement group consultation. It is further argued that consent procedures should not be transactional in being primarily focused on types of information that is to be communicated. Rather, it should be a process that ensures comprehension, empowerment and trust. Keywords Informed consent, Biobanking, Biomedical research. Group consultation, Taiwanese aborigines, Human Subjects Research Act

Ho, C.-h. (2017). "Rethinking Informed Consent in Biobanking and Biomedical Research: a Taiwanese Aboriginal Perspective and the Implementation of Group Consultation." Asian Bioethics Review 9(4): 353-365. Publisher (Open Access):  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s41649-017-0037-5

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HARKing: How Badly Can Cherry-Picking and Question Trolling Produce Bias in Published Results? (Kevin R. Murphy & Herman Aguinis | 2017)

Published/Released on December 11, 2017 | Posted by Admin on January 15, 2018 | Keywords: , , ,

Abstract [colored_box]The practice of hypothesizing after results are known (HARKing) has been identified as a potential threat to the credibility of research results. We conducted simulations using input values based on comprehensive meta-analyses and reviews in applied psychology and management (e.g., strategic management studies) to determine the extent to which two forms of HARKing behaviors might plausibly bias study outcomes and to examine the determinants of the size of this effect. When HARKing involves cherry-picking, which consists of searching through data involving alternative measures or samples to find the results that offer the strongest possible support for a particular hypothesis or research question, HARKing has only a small effect on estimates of the population effect size. When HARKing involves question trolling, which consists of searching through data involving several different constructs, measures of those constructs, interventions, or relationships to find seemingly notable results worth writing about,... More

Abstract [colored_box]The practice of hypothesizing after results are known (HARKing) has been identified as a potential threat to the credibility of research results. We conducted simulations using input values based on comprehensive meta-analyses and reviews in applied psychology and management (e.g., strategic management studies) to determine the extent to which two forms of HARKing behaviors might plausibly bias study outcomes and to examine the determinants of the size of this effect. When HARKing involves cherry-picking, which consists of searching through data involving alternative measures or samples to find the results that offer the strongest possible support for a particular hypothesis or research question, HARKing has only a small effect on estimates of the population effect size. When HARKing involves question trolling, which consists of searching through data involving several different constructs, measures of those constructs, interventions, or relationships to find seemingly notable results worth writing about, HARKing produces substantial upward bias particularly when it is prevalent and there are many effects from which to choose. Results identify the precise circumstances under which different forms of HARKing behaviors are more or less likely to have a substantial impact on a study’s substantive conclusions and the field’s cumulative knowledge. We offer suggestions for authors, consumers of research, and reviewers and editors on how to understand, minimize, detect, and deter detrimental forms of HARKing in future research. . Keywords HARKing, Simulation Publication bias, Data snooping .

Murphy, K.R. & Aguinis, H. J Bus Psychol (2017). HARKing: How Badly Can Cherry-Picking and Question Trolling Produce Bias in Published Results? Journal of Business and Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-017-9524-7 Publisher: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10869-017-9524-7 ResearchGate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321734216_HARKing_How_Badly_Can_Cherry-Picking_and_Question_Trolling_Produce_Bias_in_Published_Results

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Ethical issues concerning the recruitment of university students as research subjects (Papers: Albert F.G. Leentjens & James L. Levenson | 2013)

Abstract OBJECTIVE: To discuss the ethical issues in the recruitment of university students as research subjects. METHODS: Narrative review and discussion. RESULTS: The recruitment and inclusion of students in university research projects raise ethical issues specific to this population.... More

Abstract OBJECTIVE: To discuss the ethical issues in the recruitment of university students as research subjects. METHODS: Narrative review and discussion. RESULTS: The recruitment and inclusion of students in university research projects raise ethical issues specific to this population. Students may be required or coerced to participate, receive course credits for their participation, and their privacy may be violated. Some ethically questionable procedures are standard practice at some universities, and endorsed by their institutional review boards and faculties. Some changes will not be easy to achieve because this implies a change of organization of research and will affect funding and output. CONCLUSION: The authors call for international standards to be set for research with students, that are in line with applicable standards in research with other subjects, such as medically ill patients, on which researchers, members of institutional review boards and editors can base their policies, opinions and decisions. KEYWORDS: Ethics; Recruitment; University students

Leentjens, A. F., & Levenson, J. L. (2013). Ethical issues concerning the recruitment of university students as research subjects. Journal of psychosomatic research, 75(4), 394‐398. Publisher (Open Access): http://www.jpsychores.com/article/S0022-3999(13)00078-0/fulltext

Also see: The SoTL research ethics resource booklets produced by AHRECs

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Fallibility in science: Responsible ways to handle mistakes (Papers: Dorothy Bishop | November 2017)

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Examining publishing practices: moving beyond the idea of predatory open access (Papers: Kevin L. Smith | November 2017)

Published/Released on November 08, 2017 | Posted by Admin on January 3, 2018 | Keywords: , , , ,

Abstract [colored_box]The word ‘predatory’ has become an obstacle to a serious discussion of publishing practices. Its use has been both overinclusive, encompassing practices that, while undesirable, are not malicious, and underinclusive, missing many exploitative practices outside the open access sphere. The article examines different business models... More

Abstract [colored_box]The word ‘predatory’ has become an obstacle to a serious discussion of publishing practices. Its use has been both overinclusive, encompassing practices that, while undesirable, are not malicious, and underinclusive, missing many exploitative practices outside the open access sphere. The article examines different business models for scholarly publishing and considers the potential for abuse with each model. After looking at the problems of both blacklists and so-called ‘whitelists’, the author suggests that the best path forward would be to create tools to capture the real experience of individual authors as they navigate the publishing process with different publishers. .

Smith, K.L., (2017). Examining publishing practices: moving beyond the idea of predatory open access. Insights. 30(3), pp.4–10. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1629/uksg.388 Publisher (Open Access): https://insights.uksg.org/article/10.1629/uksg.388/

Also see: In a world of hijacked, clone and zombie publishing, where shouldn’t I publish? Examining publishing practices: moving beyond the idea of predatory open access Continuing Steps to Ensuring Credibility of NIH Research: Selecting Journals with... Illegitimate Journals and How to Stop Them: An Interview with Kelly Cobey and... Open access, power, and privilege

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Ethical complexities in child co-research (Papers: Merle Spriggs and Lynn Gillam | 2017)

Abstract Child co-research has become popular in social research involving children. This is attributed to the emphasis on children’s rights and is seen as a way to promote children’s agency and voice. It is a way of putting into practice the philosophy, common amongst childhood researchers,... More

Abstract Child co-research has become popular in social research involving children. This is attributed to the emphasis on children’s rights and is seen as a way to promote children’s agency and voice. It is a way of putting into practice the philosophy, common amongst childhood researchers, that children are experts on childhood. In this article, we discuss ethical complexities of involving children as co-researchers, beginning with an analysis of the literature, then drawing on data from interviews with researchers who conduct child co-research. We identify six ethical complexities, some of which are new findings which have not been mentioned before in this context. In light of these possible ethical complexities, a key finding is for researchers to be reflexive – to reflect on how the research may affect child co-researchers and participants before the research starts. A separate overriding message that came out in responses from the researchers we interviewed was the need for support and training for child co-researchers. We conclude by providing a list of questions for reflexive researchers to ask of themselves when they use child co-research methodology. We also provide important questions for human research ethics committees to ask when they review projects using child co-research. Keywords co-researcher, ethics, ethics committees, reflexivity, research ethics, research methodology

Spriggs M. and Gillam L (2017) "Ethical complexities in child co-research." Research Ethics 0(0): 1747016117750207. Publisher: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1747016117750207#articleCitationDownloadContainer

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Open access, power, and privilege (Papers: Shea Swauger | 2017)

Published/Released on November 29, 2017 | Posted by Admin on January 1, 2018 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

A response to “What I learned from predatory publishing”

[colored_box]In June 2017, Jeffrey Beall published an opinion piece in Biochemia Medica titled “What I Learned from Predatory Publishers.”1 While there are several elements of this publication that I find inaccurate or problematic, I’m choosing... More

A response to “What I learned from predatory publishing”

[colored_box]In June 2017, Jeffrey Beall published an opinion piece in Biochemia Medica titled “What I Learned from Predatory Publishers.”1 While there are several elements of this publication that I find inaccurate or problematic, I’m choosing four specific themes within his piece to critique. In the interest of full disclosure, I am Jeffrey Beall’s direct supervisor at the University of Colorado-Denver’s Auraria Library and have been since I began working there in July 2015. . Dangerous nostalgia . At several points, Beall describes a history of scholarly publishing where authority and credibility were known and stable, and from... .

Swauger, S. (2017) Open access, power, and privilege. College & Research Libraries News. 78(11) Publisher (Open Access): http://crln.acrl.org/index.php/crlnews/article/view/16837/18434

Also see: In a world of hijacked, clone and zombie publishing, where shouldn’t I publish? Examining publishing practices: moving beyond the idea of predatory... Continuing Steps to Ensuring Credibility of NIH Research: Selecting Journals with... Illegitimate Journals and How to Stop Them: An Interview with Kelly Cobey and... Open access, power, and privilege

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Considering the ethics of big data research: A case of Twitter and ISIS/ISIL (Elizabeth Buchanan | December 2017)

Published/Released on December 01, 2017 | Posted by Admin on December 28, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , , , ,

Abstract This is a formal commentary, responding to Matthew Curran Benigni, Kenneth Joseph, and Kathleen Carley’s contribution, “Online extremism and the communities that sustain it: Detecting the ISIS supporting community on Twitter”. This brief review reflects on the ethics of big data research methodologies, and how... More

Abstract This is a formal commentary, responding to Matthew Curran Benigni, Kenneth Joseph, and Kathleen Carley’s contribution, “Online extremism and the communities that sustain it: Detecting the ISIS supporting community on Twitter”. This brief review reflects on the ethics of big data research methodologies, and how novel methods complicate long-standing principles of research ethics. Specifically, the concept of the “data subject” as a corollary, or replacement, of “human subject” is considered.

Citation: Buchanan E (2017) Considering the ethics of big data research: A case of Twitter and ISIS/ISIL. PLoS ONE 12(12): e0187155. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187155 Publisher (Open Access): http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0187155

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Do consultancies compromise academic research and ethics? A case study of Burma/Myanmar (Papers: Ardeth Maung Thawnghmung | April 2017)

ABSTRACT This paper contributes to ongoing debates about interactions between the political science discipline and policymaking communities by analysing the role played by scholars who work as consultants for governments, non-governmental organizations, and international aid agencies in conflict-affected and post-conflict societies. It argues that although consultancies... More

ABSTRACT This paper contributes to ongoing debates about interactions between the political science discipline and policymaking communities by analysing the role played by scholars who work as consultants for governments, non-governmental organizations, and international aid agencies in conflict-affected and post-conflict societies. It argues that although consultancies permit scholars to engage with policy communities and provide convenient access for data collection, they also present methodological constraints and can complicate and compromise research ethics due to the inherent tensions linking the two different realms with their differing norms, agendas, and goals. The findings are based on the author’s decades of field experience in Myanmar, a country which has recently received much attention from the international community, on interviews with nine PhD candidates or PhD holders who have been employed as consultants for aid agencies in Myanmar and Southeast Asia, and analysis of secondary sources on countries with similar situations. KEYWORDS: Consultancy, Qualitative Research Method, Myanmar/Burma, Research Ethics, Policy-making, Transitional Democracies

Thawnghmung AM. (2017). Do consultancies compromise academic research and ethics? A case study of Burma/Myanmar. Asian Journal of Political Science 25(2): 176-193. Publisher: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02185377.2017.1307122 Research Gate: .../publication/316061682_Do_consultancies_compromise_academic_research_and_ethics...

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Artificial intelligence in peer review: How can evolutionary computation support journal editors? (Papers: Maciej J. Mrowinski, et al | September 2017)

Published/Released on September 20, 2017 | Posted by Admin on December 15, 2017 | Keywords: , , ,

Abstract With the volume of manuscripts submitted for publication growing every year, the deficiencies of peer review (e.g. long review times) are becoming more apparent. Editorial strategies, sets of guidelines designed to speed up the process and reduce editors’ workloads, are treated as trade secrets by... More

Abstract With the volume of manuscripts submitted for publication growing every year, the deficiencies of peer review (e.g. long review times) are becoming more apparent. Editorial strategies, sets of guidelines designed to speed up the process and reduce editors’ workloads, are treated as trade secrets by publishing houses and are not shared publicly. To improve the effectiveness of their strategies, editors in small publishing groups are faced with undertaking an iterative trial-and-error approach. We show that Cartesian Genetic Programming, a nature-inspired evolutionary algorithm, can dramatically improve editorial strategies. The artificially evolved strategy reduced the duration of the peer review process by 30%, without increasing the pool of reviewers (in comparison to a typical human-developed strategy). Evolutionary computation has typically been used in technological processes or biological ecosystems. Our results demonstrate that genetic programs can improve real-world social systems that are usually much harder to understand and control than physical systems.

Mrowinski MJ, Fronczak P, Fronczak A, Ausloos M, Nedic O (2017) Artificial intelligence in peer review: How can evolutionary computation support journal editors? PLoS ONE 12(9): e0184711. Publisher (open access); http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0184711

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Ethical issues in Alzheimer’s disease research involving human subjects (Dena S Davis | August 2017)

Published/Released on August 14, 2017 | Posted by Admin on December 12, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , ,

[colored_box]As we aggressively pursue research to cure and prevent Alzheimer's disease, we encounter important ethical challenges. None of these challenges, if handled thoughtfully, would pose insurmountable barriers to research. But if they are ignored, they could slow the research process, alienate potential study subjects and do damage to research... More

[colored_box]As we aggressively pursue research to cure and prevent Alzheimer's disease, we encounter important ethical challenges. None of these challenges, if handled thoughtfully, would pose insurmountable barriers to research. But if they are ignored, they could slow the research process, alienate potential study subjects and do damage to research recruits and others. These challenges are (1) the necessity of very large cohorts of research subjects, recruited for lengthy studies, probably ending only in the subjects' death; (2) the creation of cohorts of 'study ready' volunteers, many of whom will be competent to consent at the beginning of the process, but move into cognitive impairment later; (3) reliance on adaptive trial design, creating challenges for informed consent, equipoise and justice; (4) the use of biomarkers and predictive tests that describe risk rather than certainty, and that can threaten participants' welfare if the information is obtained by insurance companies or long-term care providers; (5) the use of study partners that creates unique risks of harm to the relationship of subject and study partner. We need greater attention, at all levels, to these complex ethical issues. Work on these issues should be included in research plans, from the federal to the local, and should be supported through NIH in the same way that it supported work on the ethical, legal and social implications of genetic research. .

Davis DS Ethical issues in Alzheimer’s disease research involving human subjects Journal of Medical Ethics 2017;43:852-856. Publisher: http://jme.bmj.com/content/43/12/852

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Percentage-based Author Contribution Index: a universal measure of author contribution to scientific articles (Papers: Stéphane Boyer, et al | 2017)

Published/Released on November 03, 2017 | Posted by Admin on December 8, 2017 | Keywords: , , , ,

Abstract Background Deciphering the amount of work provided by different co-authors of a scientific paper has been a recurrent problem in science. Despite the myriad of metrics available, the scientific community still largely relies on the position in the list of authors to... More

Abstract Background Deciphering the amount of work provided by different co-authors of a scientific paper has been a recurrent problem in science. Despite the myriad of metrics available, the scientific community still largely relies on the position in the list of authors to evaluate contributions, a metric that attributes subjective and unfounded credit to co-authors. We propose an easy to apply, universally comparable and fair metric to measure and report co-authors contribution in the scientific literature. Methods The proposed Author Contribution Index (ACI) is based on contribution percentages provided by the authors, preferably at the time of submission. Researchers can use ACI to compare the contributions of different authors, describe the contribution profile of a particular researcher or analyse how contribution changes through time. We provide such an analysis based on contribution percentages provided by 97 scientists from the field of ecology who voluntarily responded to an online anonymous survey. Results ACI is simple to understand and to implement because it is based solely on percentage contributions and the number of co-authors. It provides a continuous score that reflects the contribution of one author as compared to the average contribution of all other authors. For example, ACI(i) = 3, means that author i contributed three times more than what the other authors contributed on average. Our analysis comprised 836 papers published in 2014-2016 and revealed patterns of ACI values that relate to career advancement. Conclusion There are many examples of author contribution indices that have been proposed but none has really been adopted by scientific journals. Many of the proposed solutions are either too complicated, not accurate enough or not comparable across articles, authors and disciplines. The author contribution index presented here addresses these three major issues and has the potential to contribute to more transparency in the science literature. If adopted by scientific journals, it could provide job seekers, recruiters and evaluating bodies with a tool to gather information that is essential to them and cannot be easily and accurately obtained otherwise. We also suggest that scientists use the index regardless of whether it is implemented by journals or not. Keywords Co-authorship, Author contribution, Publication metric, Scientific integrity

Boyer S, Takayoshi I, Lefort MC, Malumbres-Olarte J and Schmidt J (2017) Percentage-based Author Contribution Index: a universal measure of author contribution to scientific articles. Research Integrity and Peer Review. 2 (1) Publisher (Open Access): https://researchintegrityjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41073-017-0042-y

Also see All for one or one for all? Authorship and the cross-sectoral valuation of credit..

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All for one or one for all? Authorship and the cross-sectoral valuation of credit in nutrition science (Papers: Bart Penders | 2017)

Published/Released on October 16, 2017 | Posted by Admin on December 8, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , ,

ABSTRACT [colored_box]The passionate pursuit of authorships is fuelled by the value they represent to scholars and scientists. This article asks how this value differs across scientists and how these different processes of valuation inform authorship articulation, strategies, and publication behavior in general. Drawing from a qualitative analysis of... More

ABSTRACT [colored_box]The passionate pursuit of authorships is fuelled by the value they represent to scholars and scientists. This article asks how this value differs across scientists and how these different processes of valuation inform authorship articulation, strategies, and publication behavior in general. Drawing from a qualitative analysis of authorship practices among nutrition scientists employed at universities, contract research organizations, and in food industry, I argue that two different modi operandi emerge when it comes to authorship. These different ways of working produce different collaborative approaches, different credit distribution strategies amongst collaborators, and different value placed upon (the pursuit of) authorship. These different valuation processes are neither explicit nor recognizable to those reading (and judging) author lists. As a consequence, in the politics of authorship, the names standing atop a scientific publication in nutrition science represent different types of value to both the individuals and employing organizations. . KEYWORDS: Authorship, value, credit, public-private collaboration, collaboration, nutrition science .

Penders B. (2017) All for one or one for all? Authorship and the cross-sectoral valuation of credit in nutrition science. Accountability in Research 24(8): 433-450. Publisher (Open Access): http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08989621.2017.1386565

Also see Percentage-based Author Contribution Index: a universal measure of author contribution...

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The full story of 90 hijacked journals from August 2011 to June 2015 (Papers: Jalalian Mehrdad & Dadkhah Mehdi | 2015)

Published/Released on September 15, 2017 | Posted by Admin on November 18, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

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ABSTRACT [colored_box]During recent years, the academic world has suffered a lot from the threats of hijacked journals and fake publishers that have called into question the validity and reliability of scientific publications. The purpose of this paper is to tell the in-depth story of hijacked journals. This paper addresses the hijackers themselves, the methods they use to find their victims in the academic world, the methods they use to collect money from unsuspecting researchers by charging them to publish in hijacked journals, how they hide their identities, and how the academic world can best protect itself from these cyber- criminals. Without identifying specific journal hijackers, we tell the story of how an assistant professor of computer and information science from Saudi Arabia (who holds a Ph.D. from a Malaysian university) and his team of Word Press experts from Pakistan hijacked at least six journals including journal of technology, BRI's Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Magnt Research Report, Scientific Khyber, Saussurea, and created one of the four fake websites for Texas Journal of Science. We also tell the story of how some conferences are integrated with hijacked journals, and how a cybercriminal with a fake address in United Arab Emirates used the pseudonym 'James Robinson' to mass hijack more than 20 academic journals (Journal of Balkan Tribological Association, Scientia Guaianae, Journal of American Medical Association, Cadmo, Entomon, Italianistica, Revue scientifique et technique, Kar- diologiya, Agrochimica, Terapevticheskii Arkhiv, Ama, Tekstil, Fauna Rossii I Sopredel Nykh Stran, Azariana, PSR health research bulletin, etc.). We also address the European cybercriminal with pseudonym 'Ruslan Boranbaev' who hijacked the Archives des Sciences in October 2011 and created the 'Science record journals' (to host three hijacked journals Including 'Science series data report', Innovaciencia, and 'Science and nature'; and seven fake journals) for the first time in the academic world in August 2011. We tell how Ruslan Boranbaev designed a systematic approach to mass hijack more than 25scientific journals, including Bothalia, Jokull, Cienia e tecnica, Wulfenia, Doriana, Revista Kasmera, Mitteilungen Klosterneuburg, Sylwan, HFSP journal, Natura, and Cahiers des Sciences Naturelles. We also tell the story how this genius cybercriminal, whom we could call the king of hijacked journals, created a fake 'web of sciences' portal in 2015 on a dedicated server in France to launch an automated spam broadcasting machine of calls for papers for his hijacked journals. We also present how the Ruslan Boranbaev created numerous online payment portals for collecting the publication charges of hijacked journals, and cheated the Thomson Reuters to provide hyperlinks to the fake website of three hijacked journals in his masterpiece 'revistas-academicas.com'. We also tell the story of how someone adopted the Ruslan Boranbaev approach to cheat the Thomson Reuters to create hyperlinks from master journal list of Thomson Reuters to two of his hijacked journals (GMP review: <http://www.euromed.uk.com/> Allgemeine Forst und Jagdzeitung: http://www.sauerlander-verlag.com). Finally, we present the most comprehensive list of hijacked journals available, including all of those that we have detected from Au- gust 11, 2011 to June 15, 2015. .

Jalalian M & Dadkhah M (2015) The full story of 90 hijacked journals from August 2011 to June 2015. Geographica Pannonica, 19(2), 73-87. Publisher (Open access): http://scindeks.ceon.rs/Article.aspx?artid=0354-87241502073J&lang=en

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Ethical Covert Research (Papers: Paul Spicker | 2011)

Abstract Covert research is research which is not declared to the research participants or subjects. This is often muddled with deception, and condemned as intrinsically unethical. The basis of that condemnation is a legitimate concern with the rights of research subjects. It is, however, over-generalized. Research... More

Abstract Covert research is research which is not declared to the research participants or subjects. This is often muddled with deception, and condemned as intrinsically unethical. The basis of that condemnation is a legitimate concern with the rights of research subjects. It is, however, over-generalized. Research subjects do have rights, but they are not the only people with rights. They may have some say about the use of information, but not all information is under their control. They are entitled to privacy, but not everything is private. Undeclared, undisclosed research in informal settings has to be accepted as a normal part of academic enquiry.

SPICKER, P., 2011. Ethical covert research. Sociology, 45 (1), pp. 118-133 Publisher: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038510387195 Research Gate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256621378_Ethical_Covert_Research

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Potential predatory and legitimate biomedical journals: can you tell the difference? A cross-sectional comparison (Papers: Larissa Shamseer, et al | March 2017)

Published/Released on March 16, 2017 | Posted by Admin on November 10, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , , , , , ,

Abstract Background The Internet has transformed scholarly publishing, most notably, by the introduction of open access publishing. Recently, there has been a rise of online journals characterized as ‘predatory’, which actively solicit manuscripts and charge publications fees without providing robust peer review and... More

Abstract Background The Internet has transformed scholarly publishing, most notably, by the introduction of open access publishing. Recently, there has been a rise of online journals characterized as ‘predatory’, which actively solicit manuscripts and charge publications fees without providing robust peer review and editorial services. We carried out a cross-sectional comparison of characteristics of potential predatory, legitimate open access, and legitimate subscription-based biomedical journals. Methods On July 10, 2014, scholarly journals from each of the following groups were identified – potential predatory journals (source: Beall’s List), presumed legitimate, fully open access journals (source: PubMed Central), and presumed legitimate subscription-based (including hybrid) journals (source: Abridged Index Medicus). MEDLINE journal inclusion criteria were used to screen and identify biomedical journals from within the potential predatory journals group. One hundred journals from each group were randomly selected. Journal characteristics (e.g., website integrity, look and feel, editors and staff, editorial/peer review process, instructions to authors, publication model, copyright and licensing, journal location, and contact) were collected by one assessor and verified by a second. Summary statistics were calculated. Results Ninety-three predatory journals, 99 open access, and 100 subscription-based journals were analyzed; exclusions were due to website unavailability. Many more predatory journals’ homepages contained spelling errors (61/93, 66%) and distorted or potentially unauthorized images (59/93, 63%) compared to open access journals (6/99, 6% and 5/99, 5%, respectively) and subscription-based journals (3/100, 3% and 1/100, 1%, respectively). Thirty-one (33%) predatory journals promoted a bogus impact metric – the Index Copernicus Value – versus three (3%) open access journals and no subscription-based journals. Nearly three quarters (n = 66, 73%) of predatory journals had editors or editorial board members whose affiliation with the journal was unverified versus two (2%) open access journals and one (1%) subscription-based journal in which this was the case. Predatory journals charge a considerably smaller publication fee (median $100 USD, IQR $63–$150) than open access journals ($1865 USD, IQR $800–$2205) and subscription-based hybrid journals ($3000 USD, IQR $2500–$3000). Conclusions We identified 13 evidence-based characteristics by which predatory journals may potentially be distinguished from presumed legitimate journals. These may be useful for authors who are assessing journals for possible submission or for others, such as universities evaluating candidates’ publications as part of the hiring process. Keywords Predatory, Open access, Scientific publishing, Publishing models, Biomedical journal, Journalology

Larissa Shamseer, David Moher, Onyi Maduekwe, Lucy Turner, Virginia Barbour, Rebecca Burch, Jocalyn Clark, James Galipeau, Jason Roberts and Beverley J. Shea (2017) Potential predatory and legitimate biomedical journals: can you tell the difference? A cross-sectional comparison. BMC Medicine 2017 15:28 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-017-0785-9 Publisher (open access): https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-017-0785-9

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University scandal, reputation and governance (Papers: Meredith Downes | 2017)

Published/Released on October 23, 2017 | Posted by Admin on October 29, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , , , , ,

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Abstract [colored_box]A review of the literature on corporate governance serves to demonstrate the applicability of many governance solutions to the university setting. Based on a review of university scandals, most of which are recent but some of which took place decades ago, it is possible to categorize them as follows: sex scandals, drugs, cheating, hazing, admissions and diplomas, on-the-job consumption, athletics, and murder. Several examples are provided in the paper, along with their impact on various stakeholders. The paper then discusses a variety of solutions designed to either preempt the activities potentially leading to scandal, to deter them or to punish perpetrators. Some of these involve structural changes, institutional policies and procedures, fines, terminations, and sanctions. The paper emphasizes the proactive safeguards which govern and monitor to make sure that universities do not suffer on the back end and that their reputations do not suffer into the future. . Keywords University reputation, University governance, Corporate governance, University scandal, Governance solutions, Governance in higher education

Downes, M (2017) University scandal, reputation and governance. International Journal for Educational Integrity 13(1): 8. Publisher (open access): https://edintegrity.springeropen.com/articles/10.1007/s40979-017-0019-0

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Who is Actually Harmed by Predatory Publishers? (Papers: Martin Paul Eve and Ernesto Priego | 2017)

Abstract: ‘Predatory publishing’ refers to conditions under which gold open access academic publishers claim to conduct peer review and charge for their publishing services but do not, in fact, actually perform such reviews. Most prominently exposed in recent years by Jeffrey Beall, the phenomenon garners much media... More

Abstract: ‘Predatory publishing’ refers to conditions under which gold open access academic publishers claim to conduct peer review and charge for their publishing services but do not, in fact, actually perform such reviews. Most prominently exposed in recent years by Jeffrey Beall, the phenomenon garners much media attention. In this article, we acknowledge that such practices are deceptive but then examine, across a variety of stakeholder groups, what the harm is from such actions to each group of actors. We find that established publishers have a strong motivation to hype claims of predation as damaging to the scholarly and scientific endeavour while noting that, in fact, systems of peer review are themselves already acknowledged as deeply flawed. Keywords: Open Access, Scholarly Communications, Predatory Publishing, Evaluative Cultures, Academia

Eve PM & Priego E (2017) Who is Actually Harmed by Predatory Publishers? Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society. 15(2) Publisher (Open access): http://www.triple-c.at/index.php/tripleC/article/view/867/1042

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The extent of South African authored articles in predatory journals (Papers: Johann Mouton & Astrid Valentine | 2017)

Published/Released on July 26, 2017 | Posted by Admin on September 30, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , , ,

Abstract: We present a first estimate of the extent of predatory publishing amongst South African academics. This estimate is based on an analysis of all South African authored papers that qualified for subsidy over the period 2005 to 2014. The analysis shows that 4246 South... More

Abstract: We present a first estimate of the extent of predatory publishing amongst South African academics. This estimate is based on an analysis of all South African authored papers that qualified for subsidy over the period 2005 to 2014. The analysis shows that 4246 South African papers were published in 48 journals which we re-classified (refining Beall’s classification) as either being probably or possibly predatory. A breakdown of these papers by year shows that the greatest increase in predatory publishing has occurred since 2011. Results are also presented of the distribution of these papers by individual university and scientific field. We conclude with some suggestions about predatory publishing and its pervasive consequence for our trust in science and how this should be addressed by the major stakeholders in the South African higher education system. Significance: This study is the first to analyse the extent of predatory publishing in South Africa. Keywords: predatory publishing; scholarly publishing; South Africa; open access journals; DHET funding framework

Mouton J, Valentine A. (2017) The extent of South African authored articles in predatory journals. South African Journal of Science, 113(7/8), Art. #2017-0010. http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/sajs.2017/20170010 Publisher (open access): http://www.sajs.co.za/extent-south-african-authored-articles-predatory-journals/johann-mouton-astrid-valentine

Also see South Africa has spent millions... Also see ‘Dodgy’ articles in academic journals threatens... 

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Anglo – American Management Model of Conflict of Interest in Scientific Activities and Its Enlightenment (Papers: Wei Yi Dong | 2017)

Abstract : Conflict of interest is a hot and important issue in the world. In the scientific activities, the conflict of interest is also very prominent, has affected the truth of science and objectivity, but also the reputation of the community of scientists had a... More

Abstract : Conflict of interest is a hot and important issue in the world. In the scientific activities, the conflict of interest is also very prominent, has affected the truth of science and objectivity, but also the reputation of the community of scientists had a negative impact. This is the inevitable result of the infiltration of interest into science. In response to this problem, the United States, Britain and other developed countries to develop relevant policies, the establishment of the corresponding management model, has accumulated a more mature experience, it is worth learning and learn from other countries. Key words : conflict of interest, research management, American model, British model

70-85 (in Chinese with English abstract) [J]. Science and Society, 2017, 7 (2): 70-85. WEI Yi-dong. (2017) Management Models and their Inspirations on Conflicts of Interest in Science. Science and Society. 7(2): 70-85. DOI: 10.19524 / j.cnki.10-1009 / g3.2017.02 .070 . Publisher (open access): http://www.xml-data.org/KXYSH/html/60ce743b-2708-4563-a633-73965d297102.htm

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Ethical considerations in the use of student data: International perspectives and educators’ perceptions (Papers: Hazel Jones | 2016)

Published/Released on November 16, 2016 | Posted by Admin on September 27, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , ,

Abstract: As more emphasis is placed on the notion of “Show Me the Learning”, institutions and individual staff are looking to the field of learning analytics to provide evidence of the learning that is happening. There is growing concern within the field that this evidence needs... More

Abstract: As more emphasis is placed on the notion of “Show Me the Learning”, institutions and individual staff are looking to the field of learning analytics to provide evidence of the learning that is happening. There is growing concern within the field that this evidence needs to be collected and utilised in ethical ways. However, there is a disconnect between national and international perspectives of the importance of institutional policy and guidelines regarding ethical use of student data, and the perceptions of academics about these guidelines. Although many universities are adopting such policies, results from a survey of academics suggest that such policy and guidelines are low on the ranking of factors that impact their current use and knowledge of learning analytics. Practical strategies are suggested to promote policy and guidelines, with appropriate support mechanisms that enable staff to embrace and adopt learning analytics through efficient, sustainable, and accessible processes. Keywords: Ethical use of data, learning and teaching culture, learning analytics, PESTER plan, student data

Jones, H. (2016). Ethical considerations in the use of student data: International perspectives and educators’ perceptions. In S. Barker, S. Dawson, A. Pardo, & C. Colvin (Eds.), Show Me The Learning. Proceedings ASCILITE 2016 Adelaide (pp. 300-304). http://2016conference.ascilite.org/wp-content/uploads/ascilite2016_jonesh_concise.pdf

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Improving the process of research ethics review (Papers: Stacey A. Page and Jeffrey Nyeboer | 2017)

Abstract Background Research Ethics Boards, or Institutional Review Boards, protect the safety and welfare of human research participants. These bodies are responsible for providing an independent evaluation of proposed research studies, ultimately ensuring that the research does not proceed unless standards and regulations... More

Abstract Background Research Ethics Boards, or Institutional Review Boards, protect the safety and welfare of human research participants. These bodies are responsible for providing an independent evaluation of proposed research studies, ultimately ensuring that the research does not proceed unless standards and regulations are met. Main body Concurrent with the growing volume of human participant research, the workload and responsibilities of Research Ethics Boards (REBs) have continued to increase. Dissatisfaction with the review process, particularly the time interval from submission to decision, is common within the research community, but there has been little systematic effort to examine REB processes that may contribute to inefficiencies. We offer a model illustrating REB workflow, stakeholders, and accountabilities. Conclusion Better understanding of the components of the research ethics review will allow performance targets to be set, problems identified, and solutions developed, ultimately improving the process. Keywords Research ethics, Research Ethics Boards, Research Ethics Committees, Medical research, Applied ethics, Institutional Review Boards

Page SA and Nyeboer J (2017) Improving the process of research ethics review Research Integrity and Peer Review 2(1) 14. Publisher (Open access): https://researchintegrityjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41073-017-0038-7

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Human Research Ethics and social media

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Disaster ethics: issues for researchers and participants (Papers: Dónal O’Mathúna | 2017)

Disaster responders need evidence to help guide their decisions as they plan for and implement responses. The need for evidence creates an ethical imperative to conduct some research on and in disasters. Some of that research involves human participants and raises another ethical imperative to protect participants. This presentation... More

Disaster responders need evidence to help guide their decisions as they plan for and implement responses. The need for evidence creates an ethical imperative to conduct some research on and in disasters. Some of that research involves human participants and raises another ethical imperative to protect participants. This presentation will provide an overview of some ethical challenges arising in balancing the dual imperatives in disaster research: to produce high-quality research findings and to engage with participants ethically and respectfully. Such issues have been highlighted by the inclusion of disaster research within the 2016 revision of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) ethics guidelines for health-related research involving humans. [colored_box]Debate exists over whether disaster research ethics is particularly unique. Regardless, the confluence of challenging ethical issues and the multiple vulnerabilities to which participants are exposed has the potential to create a perfect ethical storm. These issues will be examined through the lens of one set of benchmarks for ethical research in low-income settings, with examples from intervention research and qualitative research in humanitarian crises. Disaster research challenges current approaches to research ethics approval procedures. The current weight of research ethics An argument will be presented that research ethics is currently unbalanced with its focus on ethical approval and needs to refocus on facilitating ethical research. Virtue ethics for researchers needs to be developed because in the field, all that researchers may have to rely on are their conscience, virtues and personal integrity. .

Dónal O’Mathúna is Associate Professor of ethics at Dublin City University, Ireland and at The Ohio State University, USA. He is the Director of the Center for Disaster & Humanitarian Ethics (http://www.ge2p2.org/new-blog/) and was Chair of the EU-funded COST Action on Disaster Bioethics, 2012-2016 (http://disasterbioethics.eu/). He has written and presented widely on disaster ethics, including a recent comment in The Lancet (DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31276-X). .

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What incentives increase data sharing in health and medical research? A systematic review (Papers: Anisa Rowhani-Farid, et al | May 2017)

Published/Released on May 05, 2017 | Posted by Admin on August 28, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , , , ,

Abstract Background The foundation of health and medical research is data. Data sharing facilitates the progress of research and strengthens science. Data sharing in research is widely discussed in the literature; however, there are seemingly no evidence-based incentives that promote data sharing. More

Abstract Background The foundation of health and medical research is data. Data sharing facilitates the progress of research and strengthens science. Data sharing in research is widely discussed in the literature; however, there are seemingly no evidence-based incentives that promote data sharing. Methods A systematic review (registration: doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/6PZ5E) of the health and medical research literature was used to uncover any evidence-based incentives, with pre- and post-empirical data that examined data sharing rates. We were also interested in quantifying and classifying the number of opinion pieces on the importance of incentives, the number observational studies that analysed data sharing rates and practices, and strategies aimed at increasing data sharing rates. Results Only one incentive (using open data badges) has been tested in health and medical research that examined data sharing rates. The number of opinion pieces (n = 85) out-weighed the number of article-testing strategies (n = 76), and the number of observational studies exceeded them both (n = 106). Conclusions Given that data is the foundation of evidence-based health and medical research, it is paradoxical that there is only one evidence-based incentive to promote data sharing. More well-designed studies are needed in order to increase the currently low rates of data sharing. Keywords Incentives, Data sharing, Open data, Meta-research

Rowhani-Farid A, Allen M, & Barnett AG (2017) What incentives increase data sharing in health and medical research? A systematic review. Research Integrity and Peer Review. 2(4) DOI: 10.1186/s41073-017-0028-9 Publisher (Open Access): https://researchintegrityjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186...

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Afraid of Scooping; Case Study on Researcher Strategies against Fear of Scooping in the Context of Open Science (Papers: Heidi Laine | 2017)

Published/Released on June 15, 2017 | Posted by Admin on August 22, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , , ,

[colored_box]The risk of scooping is often used as a counter argument for open science, especially open data. In this case study I have examined openness strategies, practices and attitudes in two open collaboration research projects created by Finnish researchers, in order to understand what made them resistant to the... More

[colored_box]The risk of scooping is often used as a counter argument for open science, especially open data. In this case study I have examined openness strategies, practices and attitudes in two open collaboration research projects created by Finnish researchers, in order to understand what made them resistant to the fear of scooping. The radically open approach of the projects includes open by default funding proposals, co-authorship and community membership. Primary sources used are interviews of the projects’ founding members. The analysis indicates that openness requires trust in close peers, but not necessarily in research community or society at large. Based on the case study evidence, focusing on intrinsic goals, like new knowledge and bringing about ethical reform, instead of external goals such as publications, supports openness. Understanding fundaments of science, philosophy of science and research ethics, can also have a beneficial effect on willingness to share. Whether there are aspects in open sharing that makes it seem riskier from the point of view of certain demographical groups within research community, such as women, could be worth closer inspection. .

Laine  H  (2017) Afraid of Scooping : Case Study on Researcher Strategies against Fear of Scooping in the Context of Open Science. Data Science Journal. 16(29) DOI: 10.5334/dsj-2017-029 Publisher (open access): https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/195064

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Hijacked Journals: An Emerging Challenge for Scholarly Publishing (Papers: Mehdi Dadkhah & Glenn Borchardt | 2016)

Published/Released on January 23, 2016 | Posted by Admin on August 11, 2017 | Keywords: , , ,

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Online-Based Approaches to Identify Real Journals and Publishers from Hijacked Ones (Papers: Amin Asadi, et al | 2017)

Published/Released on January 02, 2016 | Posted by Admin on August 9, 2017 | Keywords: , , ,

Abstract The aim of the present paper was to introduce some online-based approaches to evaluate scientific journals and publishers and to differentiate them from the hijacked ones, regardless of their disciplines. With the advent of open-access journals, many hijacked journals and publishers have deceitfully assumed the... More

Abstract The aim of the present paper was to introduce some online-based approaches to evaluate scientific journals and publishers and to differentiate them from the hijacked ones, regardless of their disciplines. With the advent of open-access journals, many hijacked journals and publishers have deceitfully assumed the mantle of authenticity in order to take advantage of researchers and students. Although these hijacked journals and publishers can be identified through checking their advertisement techniques and their websites, these ways do not always result in their identification. There exist certain online-based approaches, such as using Master Journal List provided by Thomson Reuters, and Scopus database, and using the DOI of a paper, to certify the realness of a journal or publisher. It is indispensable that inexperienced students and researchers know these methods so as to identify hijacked journals and publishers with a higher level of probability. Keywords Hijacked journals, Fake publishers, Open-access, Scientific journals

Asadi A, Rahbar N, Asadi M, Asadi F and Kokab Paji KK. (2017) Online-Based Approaches to Identify Real Journals and Publishers from Hijacked Ones. Science and Engineering Ethics. 23(1): 305-308 Publisher: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11948-015-9747-9

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Questionable research practices among italian research psychologists (Papers: Franca Agnoli | March 2017)

Abstract [colored_box]A survey in the United States revealed that an alarmingly large percentage of university psychologists admitted having used questionable research practices that can contaminate the research literature with false positive and biased findings. We conducted a replication of this study among Italian research psychologists to... More

Abstract [colored_box]A survey in the United States revealed that an alarmingly large percentage of university psychologists admitted having used questionable research practices that can contaminate the research literature with false positive and biased findings. We conducted a replication of this study among Italian research psychologists to investigate whether these findings generalize to other countries. All the original materials were translated into Italian, and members of the Italian Association of Psychology were invited to participate via an online survey. The percentages of Italian psychologists who admitted to having used ten questionable research practices were similar to the results obtained in the United States although there were small but significant differences in self-admission rates for some QRPs. Nearly all researchers (88%) admitted using at least one of the practices, and researchers generally considered a practice possibly defensible if they admitted using it, but Italian researchers were much less likely than US researchers to consider a practice defensible. Participants’ estimates of the percentage of researchers who have used these practices were greater than the self-admission rates, and participants estimated that researchers would be unlikely to admit it. In written responses, participants argued that some of these practices are not questionable and they have used some practices because reviewers and journals demand it. The similarity of results obtained in the United States, this study, and a related study conducted in Germany suggest that adoption of these practices is an international phenomenon and is likely due to systemic features of the international research and publication processes. .

Agnoli F, Wicherts JM, Veldkamp CLS, Albiero P, Cubelli R (2017) Questionable research practices among italian research psychologists. PLoS ONE 12(3): e0172792. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0172792 Publisher (open access - including the data): http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0172792

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Values in China as Compared to Africa: Two Conceptions of Harmony

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Intervention to Promote Responsible Conduct of Research Mentoring (Papers: Michael W. Kalichman & Dena K. Plemmons | 2017)

Published/Released on June 12, 2017 | Posted by Admin on July 19, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , ,

Abstract [colored_box]Although much of the focus on responsible conduct in research has been defined by courses or online training, it is generally understood that this is less important than what happens in the research environment. On the assumption that providing faculty with tools and resources to... More

Abstract [colored_box]Although much of the focus on responsible conduct in research has been defined by courses or online training, it is generally understood that this is less important than what happens in the research environment. On the assumption that providing faculty with tools and resources to address the ethical dimensions of the practice of research would be useful, a new workshop was convened ten times across seven academic institutions and at the annual meeting of a professional society. Workshops were attended by 91 faculty, 71 (78% response rate) of whom completed evaluations strongly supportive of the value of the workshop. Surveys of trainees identified by the faculty allowed for invitations to complete an online survey before and 6 months after the workshops, respectively resulting in response rates of 43 and 51%. Faculty and trainees were highly supportive of the feasibility, relevance, and effectiveness of the implementation by the faculty of one or more of the five strategies featured in the workshop. However, surprisingly over 70% of the trainees reported use of one or more of those strategies prior to faculty participation in the workshops. In sum, the workshops for faculty were successful, and the proposed strategies were deemed of value, but it is likely that the faculty voluntarily choosing to participate in these workshops were perhaps not surprisingly faculty who are already engaging in some of these strategies. This model is likely a useful adjunct to encouraging a culture of ethics, but it is not by itself sufficient to do so. . Keywords Research ethics, Responsible conduct of research, Mentoring .

Kalichman, M. W. and D. K. Plemmons (2017). Intervention to Promote Responsible Conduct of Research Mentoring. Science and Engineering Ethics. In print. DOI 10.1007/s11948-017-9929-8 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11948-017-9929-8

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Ethical by Design: Ethics Best Practices for Natural Language Processing (Papers: Jochen L. Leidner and Vassilis Plachouras | 2017)

Published/Released on April 04, 2017 | Posted by Admin on July 18, 2017 | Keywords: , , , ,

Abstract Natural Language Processing (NLP) systems analyze and/or generate human language, typically on users’ behalf. One natural and necessary question that needs to be addressed in this context, both in research projects and in production settings, is the question how ethical the work is, both regarding... More

Abstract Natural Language Processing (NLP) systems analyze and/or generate human language, typically on users’ behalf. One natural and necessary question that needs to be addressed in this context, both in research projects and in production settings, is the question how ethical the work is, both regarding the process and its outcome. [colored_box]Towards this end, we articulate a set of issues, propose a set of best practices, notably a process featuring an ethics review board, and sketch how they could be meaningfully applied. Our main argument is that ethical outcomes ought to be achieved by design, i.e. by following a process aligned by ethical values. We also offer some response options for those facing ethics issues. . While a number of previous works exist that discuss ethical issues, in particular around big data and machine learning, to the authors’ knowledge this is the first account of NLP and ethics from the perspective of a principled process. .

Jochen L. Leidner and Vassilis Plachouras (2017) Ethical by Design: Ethics Best Practices for Natural Language Processing. Proceedings of the First Workshop on Ethics in Natural Language Processing, pages 8–18, Valencia, Spain, April 4th, 2017. http://www.ethicsinnlp.org/workshop/pdf/EthNLP02.pdf

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Indexing by Bibliographic Databases of Journals Published in the Developing World (Papers: Aamir Raoof Memon and Ahmed Waqas | 2017)

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Promoting Responsible Conduct of Research: A Canadian Perspective (Papers: Susan Zimmerman & Karen Wallace | 2013)

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Detecting Hijacked Journals by Using Classification Algorithms (Papers: Mona Andoohgin Shahri, et al | 2017)

Published/Released on April 10, 2017 | Posted by Admin on June 26, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

Abstract [colored_box]Invalid journals are recent challenges in the academic world and many researchers are unacquainted with the phenomenon. The number of victims appears to be accelerating. Researchers might be suspicious of predatory journals because they have unfamiliar names, but hijacked journals are imitations of well-known, reputable... More

Abstract [colored_box]Invalid journals are recent challenges in the academic world and many researchers are unacquainted with the phenomenon. The number of victims appears to be accelerating. Researchers might be suspicious of predatory journals because they have unfamiliar names, but hijacked journals are imitations of well-known, reputable journals whose websites have been hijacked. Hijacked journals issue calls for papers via generally laudatory emails that delude researchers into paying exorbitant page charges for publication in a nonexistent journal. This paper presents a method for detecting hijacked journals by using a classification algorithm. The number of published articles exposing hijacked journals is limited and most of them use simple techniques that are limited to specific journals. Hence we needed to amass Internet addresses and pertinent data for analyzing this type of attack. We inspected the websites of 104 scientific journals by using a classification algorithm that used criteria common to reputable journals. We then prepared a decision tree that we used to test five journals we knew were authentic and five we knew were hijacked. . Keywords Hijacked journals, Internet fraud, Academic ethics, Editorial process, Spam emails .

Andoohgin Shahri M, Jazi MD, Borchardt G. et al (2017)  Detecting Hijacked Journals by Using Classification Algorithms. Science and Engineering Ethics. doi:10.1007/s11948-017-9914-2 Publisher: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11948-017-9914-2

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A Proposal for Considering Research Integrity from the Perspective of Behavioral Economics (Papers: Melissa S. Anderson and Jamal A. Adam | 2014)

Over the past 30 years, cases of scientific misconduct have tended to follow what is by now a familiar pattern: misconduct is intentionally committed, the clandestine misdeeds are revealed, institutions and funders react, investigations ensue, punishments are imposed, and the long process of correcting the research... More

Over the past 30 years, cases of scientific misconduct have tended to follow what is by now a familiar pattern: misconduct is intentionally committed, the clandestine misdeeds are revealed, institutions and funders react, investigations ensue, punishments are imposed, and the long process of correcting the research record continues on. Major cases of misconduct usually prompt institutions to review and tighten their research oversight and policies and to improve their approaches to instruction in the responsible conduct of research. When a case becomes a matter of national embarrassment, these reactions can be systemically widespread. There is, of course, variation in this general pattern, particularly in the extent of successful correction of the scientific record (16).

The trajectory of action associated with a misconduct case thus typically begins with an individual, but ownership of the problem rises through the academic research hierarchy to the officials of research institutions, funding agencies and regulatory bodies, among others. The consequences then come back down the hierarchy, often with implications that extend to several academic or administrative departments or even to entire institutions. In the U.S., three primary systemic responses to misconduct have emerged in recent decades: the development and elaboration of policies, regulations, codes of conduct and so on; instruction in the responsible conduct of research; and oversight and other mechanisms for ensuring compliance.

These approaches, though obviously valuable, are designed for general impact across disciplines and research settings. What is needed are strategies to protect research integrity in the specific contexts where the work of research is performed. This shift involves more careful consideration of the following four points...

Anderson, M. S., & Adam, J. A. (2014). A Proposal for Considering Research Integrity from the Perspective of Behavioral Economics. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education15(2), 173–176. http://doi.org/10.1128/jmbe.v15i2.868 Publisher (Open Access0: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4278472/

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Integrating the Management of Personal Data Protection and Open Science with Research Ethics (Papers: David Lewis, et al | 2017)

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Ethical Research Protocols for Social Media Health Research (Papers: Adrian Benton, et al | 2017)

Abstract Social media have transformed datadriven research in political science, the social sciences, health, and medicine. Since health research often touches on sensitive topics that relate to ethics of treatment and patient privacy, similar ethical considerations should be acknowledged when using social media data in health research. While much has... More

Abstract Social media have transformed datadriven research in political science, the social sciences, health, and medicine. Since health research often touches on sensitive topics that relate to ethics of treatment and patient privacy, similar ethical considerations should be acknowledged when using social media data in health research. While much has been said regarding the ethical considerations of social media research, health research leads to an additional set of concerns. We provide practical suggestions in the form of guidelines for researchers working with social media data in health research. These guidelines can inform an IRB proposal for researchers new to social media health research.

Benton A, Coppersmith G & Dredze M (2017) Ethical Research Protocols for Social Media Health Research. Proceedings of the First Workshop on Ethics in Natural Language Processing, pages 94–102, Valencia, Spain, April 4th, 2017. Publisher: http://www.ethicsinnlp.org/workshop/pdf/EthNLP12.pdf

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Expert perspectives on ethics review of international data-intensive research: Working towards mutual recognition (Papers: Edward S Dove & Chiara Garattini | June 2017)

Abstract Life sciences research is increasingly international and data-intensive. Researchers work in multi-jurisdictional teams or formally established research consortia to exchange data and conduct research using computation of multiple sources and volumes of data at multiple sites and through multiple pathways. Despite the internationalization and data... More

Abstract Life sciences research is increasingly international and data-intensive. Researchers work in multi-jurisdictional teams or formally established research consortia to exchange data and conduct research using computation of multiple sources and volumes of data at multiple sites and through multiple pathways. Despite the internationalization and data intensification of research, the same ethics review process as applies to single-site studies in one country tends to apply to multi-site studies in multiple countries. Because of the standard requirement for multi-jurisdictional or multi-site ethics review, international research projects are subjected to multiple ethics reviews of the same research protocol. Consequently, the reviews may be redundant and resource-consuming, whilst the opinions delivered by ethics committees may be inconsistent both within and across jurisdictions. In this article, we present findings based on interviews conducted with international experts in research ethics on the topic of ethics review mutual recognition. We explore the issues associated with ethics committee review of multi-jurisdictional data-intensive research projects, identifying current problems, real-life experiences, and potential solutions that are both bottom-up (via researchers, participants and publics) and top-down (via statutory regulation), as well as challenges in achieving both. On the whole, participants recommended multiple changes to the current ethics review regime for data-intensive international research with the aim of reducing inefficiency and inconsistency. But, the changes recommended differ in terms of degree and scope. In general, participants stressed that key drivers of success in a reformed system should be strong leadership (on the ground and in government) and demonstration of value. Keywords data-intensive research, ethics review, international research, mutual recognition, research ethics, research ethics committees

Dove ES and Garattini C (2017) Expert perspectives on ethics review of international data-intensive research: Working towards mutual recognition. Research Ethics. doi: 10.1177/1747016117711972 Publisher (Open access): http://journals.sagepub.com/eprint/rhVadgBXY4dsbnU7jkqX/full

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Research Ethics and New Forms of Data for Social and Economic Research

[colored_box]This report sets out some basic rules that underpin an ethical approach to research using new forms of data for social and economic research. These rules and the interpretation that we place upon them give rise to a set of recommendations designed to provide a framework for the ethical... More

[colored_box]This report sets out some basic rules that underpin an ethical approach to research using new forms of data for social and economic research. These rules and the interpretation that we place upon them give rise to a set of recommendations designed to provide a framework for the ethical governance of research using such data. There are assumptions and limitations underpinning these recommendations – they are not cost-free and will be easier to apply in countries with established research ethics procedures, particularly where research organisations and data owners have access to ethical review bodies. The sharing of expertise on, and knowledge about, research ethics between countries is critical to the creation of a common and cost-efficient ethical environment for social scientific research. .

OECD (2016), “Research Ethics and New Forms of Data for Social and Economic Research”, OECD Science, Technology and Industry Policy Papers, No. 34, OECD Publishing, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5jln7vnpxs32-en

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The Complex and Multifaceted Aspects of Conflicts of Interest (Papers: William W. Stead, MD | May 2017)

Judgment and integrity are 2 hallmarks of professionalism. Conflict of interest (COI), bias, and dishonesty represent a spectrum of threats to judgment and integrity. [colored_box]COI, a conflict between a professional responsibility and a personal interest, is at one end of this threat spectrum. COI creates a risk of bias. Bias,... More

Judgment and integrity are 2 hallmarks of professionalism. Conflict of interest (COI), bias, and dishonesty represent a spectrum of threats to judgment and integrity. [colored_box]COI, a conflict between a professional responsibility and a personal interest, is at one end of this threat spectrum. COI creates a risk of bias. Bias, a prejudice for or against something, is in the middle of this spectrum. If a COI results in bias, the bias may affect a professional judgment. Dishonesty is deceit or fraud. Dishonesty is at the opposite end of this spectrum from COI. Each of these threats exists on a continuum. COI may be present or perceived. Bias may be conscious or unconscious. Dishonesty may be intentional or unintentional. . Every professional has COIs. The conflicts may be internal (eg, personal interest in reputation or career advancement) or external (eg, a financial interest in a for-profit business). Few professionals are intentionally dishonest. Recognition that each physician has COIs and that COIs and dishonesty are at different ends of the spectrum is the first step in a thoughtful conversation about how to protect professional judgment and integrity. .

Stead WW. The Complex and Multifaceted Aspects of Conflicts of Interest. JAMA. 2017;317(17):1765-1767. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.3435 http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2623588

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Where Are the Missing Coauthors? Authorship Practices in Participatory Research (Papers: Daniel Sarna-Wojcicki, et al | 2017)

Abstract Originally marginal, participatory research has become an increasingly important methodology in the social, biophysical, and interdisciplinary sciences. The overall increase in publications based on participatory research has raised questions about crediting the contributions of nonacademic collaborators. Using qualitative and quantitative methods, we analyzed trends and patterns in... More

Abstract Originally marginal, participatory research has become an increasingly important methodology in the social, biophysical, and interdisciplinary sciences. The overall increase in publications based on participatory research has raised questions about crediting the contributions of nonacademic collaborators. Using qualitative and quantitative methods, we analyzed trends and patterns in authorship and acknowledgment practices in a sample of 262 journal articles reporting on participatory research on rural livelihoods published from 1975 to 2013. Six percent of the researchers recognized the intellectual contributions of their nonacademic collaborators with coauthorship and 51 percent with acknowledgment. Through interviews with lead authors of coauthored articles, we analyzed factors that shaped whether authorship was shared with nonacademic collaborators. Despite facing numerous barriers, researchers were motivated to coauthor in order to recognize intellectual contributions, practice research ethics, and work toward epistemic decolonization. We argue that coauthorship can be an important component of epistemic justice in participatory research and encourage participatory researchers to discuss authorship with their nonacademic collaborators as a routine component of engaged scholarship. We also note that nonacademics’ contributions to scientific knowledge need to be taken into account in understandings of the practice of science.

Sarna-Wojcicki D, Perret M, Eitzel MV, Fortmann L (2017) Where Are the Missing Coauthors? Authorship Practices in Participatory Research. Rural Sociology. Publisher: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ruso.12156/full

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Scientists Admitting to Plagiarism: A Meta-analysis of Surveys (Papers: Vanja Pupovac & Daniele Fanelli | 2015)

Abstract We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of anonymous surveys asking scientists whether they ever committed various forms of plagiarism. From May to December 2011 we searched 35 bibliographic databases, five grey literature databases and hand searched nine journals for potentially relevant studies. We included... More

Abstract We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of anonymous surveys asking scientists whether they ever committed various forms of plagiarism. From May to December 2011 we searched 35 bibliographic databases, five grey literature databases and hand searched nine journals for potentially relevant studies. We included surveys that asked scientists if, in a given recall period, they had committed or knew of a colleague who committed plagiarism, and from each survey extracted the proportion of those who reported at least one case. Studies that focused on academic (i.e. student) plagiarism were excluded. Literature searches returned 12,460 titles from which 17 relevant survey studies were identified. Meta-analysis of studies reporting committed (N = 7) and witnessed (N = 11) plagiarism yielded a pooled estimate of, respectively, 1.7 % (95 % CI 1.2–2.4) and 30 % (95 % CI 17–46). Basic methodological factors, including sample size, year of survey, delivery method and whether survey questions were explicit rather than indirect made a significant difference on survey results. Even after controlling for these methodological factors, between-study differences in admission rates were significantly above those expected by sampling error alone and remained largely unexplained. Despite several limitations of the data and of this meta-analysis, we draw three robust conclusions: (1) The rate at which scientists report knowing a colleague who committed plagiarism is higher than for data fabrication and falsification; (2) The rate at which scientists report knowing a colleague who committed plagiarism is correlated to that of fabrication and falsification; (3) The rate at which scientists admit having committed either form of misconduct (i.e. fabrication, falsification and plagiarism) in surveys has declined over time. Keywords Plagiarism, Research misconduct, Research integrity, Data fabrication, Data falsification, Survey methodology

Pupovac V & Fanelli D (2015) Scientists Admitting to Plagiarism: A Meta-analysis of Surveys. Science and Engineering Ethics. 21(5) pp 1331-1352. doi:10.1007/s11948-014-9600-6 Publisher: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11948-014-9600-6

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We need more research on causes and consequences, as well as on solutions (Papers: Daniele Fanelli | 2015)

ARE BIAS AND MISCONDUCT GROWING? There is no direct evidence that the reproducibility of published findings has actually declined, or that bias and misconduct have increased in frequency. The recent rise in retractions, typically invoked as evidence of an epidemic of fraud, is instead accounted for... More

ARE BIAS AND MISCONDUCT GROWING? There is no direct evidence that the reproducibility of published findings has actually declined, or that bias and misconduct have increased in frequency. The recent rise in retractions, typically invoked as evidence of an epidemic of fraud, is instead accounted for entirely by the increasing number of journals who implement policies to retract papers, and therefore should be interpreted as a positive sign [1]. The most reliable evidence of a growing problem comes from two independent studies [2, 3] that measured the prevalence of reported ‘positive’ or statistically significant results in electronic databases, using different proxies. Both these studies show that positive-outcome bias, at least in scientific abstracts, has grown in most disciplines and countries. It is still unclear, however, if and to what extent this growth in literature biases reflects a growth in actual significance chasing, selection or manipulation of data. The rate at which scientists admit to having committed various forms of misconduct, for example, has declined, not increased, over the years [4]...

Keywords Bias, meta-science, misconduct, peer-review, reporting, retraction

Fanelli D (2015) We need more research on causes and consequences, as well as on solutions. Addiction 110(1) pp11-13 Publisher: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/add.12772/full

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Ethical Imperialism’ and the Export of Research Ethics Regulation from the Global North to South Africa (Papers: Mark Israel | May 2017)

Abstract The global export of principlism forms part of broader international flows of capital, students and academics, as well as knowledge and ideology. The impact of global capital has had a long-standing effect on research ethics governance. Pharmaceutical companies have sought to open up new markets... More

Abstract The global export of principlism forms part of broader international flows of capital, students and academics, as well as knowledge and ideology. The impact of global capital has had a long-standing effect on research ethics governance. Pharmaceutical companies have sought to open up new markets and take advantage of cheaper sites for multi-centre drug trials. Multinational research teams have looked to those countries with lower risks of litigation, low labour costs, pharmacologically ‘naive’ participants, weak ethics review and the absence of other regulatory processes. As a result, research in low- and middleincome countries has burgeoned. As developing countries struggle to keep pace, the Helsinki and UNESCO Declarations have created regulatory templates for those without the infrastructure to create their own, and a range of capacity-building initiatives in research ethics have encouraged researchers in many developing countries to follow these models. Increasing student and academic mobility and international research collaboration between the global North and South may also ease international transfer of a range of research and education policies that favour universalist approaches to research ethics. Contemporary regulations in countries such as South Africa have shadowed developments in the North and have extended biomedical regulation to all forms of research. However, in some parts of the global South and the Fourth World, there is an emerging distrust and a critique of the motivation for some of the funding for capacitybuilding in research ethics. For many, opposition to universalist claims is not simply targeted at insensitivity in application but draws on critical ethical traditions such as indigenous, postmodern and postcolonial ethics to challenge the universal basis for principlism, and calls for a deeper understanding of and engagement with how different societies, cultures, peoples and disciplines understand ethics, research and ethical research.

Israel, M (2017) ‘Ethical Imperialism’ and the Export of Research Ethics Regulation from the Global North to South Africa. AFSAAP Annual Conference Proceedings – Africa: Moving the Boundaries. ISBN 978-0-9942689-2-1. http://afsaap.org.au/assets/15-Mark-Israel.pdf

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Researchers’ Individual Publication Rate Has Not Increased in a Century (Papers: Daniele Fanelli and Vincent Larivière | 2016)

Published/Released on March 09, 2016 | Posted by Admin on May 27, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , , , ,

Abstract [colored_box]Debates over the pros and cons of a “publish or perish” philosophy have inflamed academia for at least half a century. Growing concerns, in particular, are expressed for policies that reward “quantity” at the expense of “quality,” because these might prompt scientists to unduly multiply... More

Abstract [colored_box]Debates over the pros and cons of a “publish or perish” philosophy have inflamed academia for at least half a century. Growing concerns, in particular, are expressed for policies that reward “quantity” at the expense of “quality,” because these might prompt scientists to unduly multiply their publications by fractioning (“salami slicing”), duplicating, rushing, simplifying, or even fabricating their results. To assess the reasonableness of these concerns, we analyzed publication patterns of over 40,000 researchers that, between the years 1900 and 2013, have published two or more papers within 15 years, in any of the disciplines covered by the Web of Science. The total number of papers published by researchers during their early career period (first fifteen years) has increased in recent decades, but so has their average number of co-authors. If we take the latter factor into account, by measuring productivity fractionally or by only counting papers published as first author, we observe no increase in productivity throughout the century. Even after the 1980s, adjusted productivity has not increased for most disciplines and countries. These results are robust to methodological choices and are actually conservative with respect to the hypothesis that publication rates are growing. Therefore, the widespread belief that pressures to publish are causing the scientific literature to be flooded with salami-sliced, trivial, incomplete, duplicated, plagiarized and false results is likely to be incorrect or at least exaggerated. .

Fanelli D, Larivière V (2016) Researchers’ Individual Publication Rate Has Not Increased in a Century. PLoS ONE 11(3): e0149504. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0149504 Publisher (Open Access): http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0149504

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Meta-assessment of bias in science (Papers: Daniele Fanelli, et al | 2017)

Published/Released on February 14, 2017 | Posted by Admin on May 26, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , , , , ,

Abstract [colored_box]Numerous biases are believed to affect the scientific literature, but their actual prevalence across disciplines is unknown. To gain a comprehensive picture of the potential imprint of bias in science, we probed for the most commonly postulated bias-related patterns and risk factors, in a large... More

Abstract [colored_box]Numerous biases are believed to affect the scientific literature, but their actual prevalence across disciplines is unknown. To gain a comprehensive picture of the potential imprint of bias in science, we probed for the most commonly postulated bias-related patterns and risk factors, in a large random sample of meta-analyses taken from all disciplines. The magnitude of these biases varied widely across fields and was overall relatively small. However, we consistently observed a significant risk of small, early, and highly cited studies to overestimate effects and of studies not published in peer-reviewed journals to underestimate them. We also found at least partial confirmation of previous evidence suggesting that US studies and early studies might report more extreme effects, although these effects were smaller and more heterogeneously distributed across meta-analyses and disciplines. Authors publishing at high rates and receiving many citations were, overall, not at greater risk of bias. However, effect sizes were likely to be overestimated by early-career researchers, those working in small or long-distance collaborations, and those responsible for scientific misconduct, supporting hypotheses that connect bias to situational factors, lack of mutual control, and individual integrity. Some of these patterns and risk factors might have modestly increased in intensity over time, particularly in the social sciences. Our findings suggest that, besides one being routinely cautious that published small, highly-cited, and earlier studies may yield inflated results, the feasibility and costs of interventions to attenuate biases in the literature might need to be discussed on a discipline-specific and topic-specific basis. . Keywords bias, misconduct, meta-analysis, integrity, meta-research .

Fanelli D, Costas R, Ioannidis JPA (2017) Meta-assessment of bias in science. PNAS 114(14) pp3714–3719 - 10.1073/pnas.1618569114 Publisher (open access): http://www.pnas.org/content/114/14/3714.abstract

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Misconduct Policies, Academic Culture and Career Stage, Not Gender or Pressures to Publish, Affect Scientific Integrity (Papers: Daniele Fanelli, et al | 2015)

Abstract The honesty and integrity of scientists is widely believed to be threatened by pressures to publish, unsupportive research environments, and other structural, sociological and psychological factors. Belief in the importance of these factors has inspired major policy initiatives, but evidence to support them is either... More

Abstract The honesty and integrity of scientists is widely believed to be threatened by pressures to publish, unsupportive research environments, and other structural, sociological and psychological factors. Belief in the importance of these factors has inspired major policy initiatives, but evidence to support them is either non-existent or derived from self-reports and other sources that have known limitations. We used a retrospective study design to verify whether risk factors for scientific misconduct could predict the occurrence of retractions, which are usually the consequence of research misconduct, or corrections, which are honest rectifications of minor mistakes. Bibliographic and personal information were collected on all co-authors of papers that have been retracted or corrected in 2010-2011 (N=611 and N=2226 papers, respectively) and authors of control papers matched by journal and issue (N=1181 and N=4285 papers, respectively), and were analysed with conditional logistic regression. Results, which avoided several limitations of past studies and are robust to different sampling strategies, support the notion that scientific misconduct is more likely in countries that lack research integrity policies, in countries where individual publication performance is rewarded with cash, in cultures and situations were mutual criticism is hampered, and in the earliest phases of a researcher’s career. The hypothesis that males might be prone to scientific misconduct was not supported, and the widespread belief that pressures to publish are a major driver of misconduct was largely contradicted: high-impact and productive researchers, and those working in countries in which pressures to publish are believed to be higher, are less-likely to produce retracted papers, and more likely to correct them. Efforts to reduce and prevent misconduct, therefore, might be most effective if focused on promoting research integrity policies, improving mentoring and training, and encouraging transparent communication amongst researchers.

Fanelli D, Costas R, Larivière V (2015) Misconduct Policies, Academic Culture and Career Stage, Not Gender or Pressures to Publish, Affect Scientific Integrity. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0127556. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0127556 Publisher (open access): http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0127556

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Meta-research: Evaluation and Improvement of Research Methods and Practices (Papers: John P. A. Ioannidis, et al | 2015)

Abstract As the scientific enterprise has grown in size and diversity, we need empirical evidence on the research process to test and apply interventions that make it more efficient and its results more reliable. Meta-research is an evolving scientific discipline that aims to evaluate and improve... More

Abstract As the scientific enterprise has grown in size and diversity, we need empirical evidence on the research process to test and apply interventions that make it more efficient and its results more reliable. Meta-research is an evolving scientific discipline that aims to evaluate and improve research practices. It includes thematic areas of methods, reporting, reproducibility, evaluation, and incentives (how to do, report, verify, correct, and reward science). Much work is already done in this growing field, but efforts to-date are fragmented. We provide a map of ongoing efforts and discuss plans for connecting the multiple meta-research efforts across science worldwide.

Ioannidis JPA, Fanelli D, Dunne DD, Goodman SN (2015) Meta-research: Evaluation and Improvement of Research Methods and Practices. PLoS Biol 13(10): e1002264. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002264 Publisher (open access): http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1002264

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Doing the Right Thing: A Qualitative Investigation of Retractions Due to Unintentional Error (Papers: Mohammad Hosseini, et al | 2017)

Abstract Retractions solicited by authors following the discovery of an unintentional error—what we henceforth call a “self-retraction”—are a new phenomenon of growing importance, about which very little is known. Here we present results of a small qualitative study aimed at gaining preliminary insights about circumstances, motivations... More

Abstract Retractions solicited by authors following the discovery of an unintentional error—what we henceforth call a “self-retraction”—are a new phenomenon of growing importance, about which very little is known. Here we present results of a small qualitative study aimed at gaining preliminary insights about circumstances, motivations and beliefs that accompanied the experience of a self-retraction. We identified retraction notes that unambiguously reported an honest error and that had been published between the years 2010 and 2015. We limited our sample to retractions with at least one co-author based in the Netherlands, Belgium, United Kingdom, Germany or a Scandinavian country, and we invited these authors to a semi-structured interview. Fourteen authors accepted our invitation. Contrary to our initial assumptions, most of our interviewees had not originally intended to retract their paper. They had contacted the journal to request a correction and the decision to retract had been made by journal editors. All interviewees reported that having to retract their own publication made them concerned for their scientific reputation and career, often causing considerable stress and anxiety. Interviewees also encountered difficulties in communicating with the journal and recalled other procedural issues that had unnecessarily slowed down the process of self-retraction. Intriguingly, however, all interviewees reported how, contrary to their own expectations, the self-retraction had brought no damage to their reputation and in some cases had actually improved it. We also examined the ethical motivations that interviewees ascribed, retrospectively, to their actions and found that such motivations included a combination of moral and prudential (i.e. pragmatic) considerations. These preliminary results suggest that scientists would welcome innovations to facilitate the process of self-retraction. Keywords Integrity, Error. Misconduct, Retractions, Corrections, Moral reasoning

Hosseini M, Hilhorst M, de Beaufort I, Fanelli D (2017) Doing the Right Thing: A Qualitative Investigation of Retractions Due to Unintentional Error. Science and Engineering Ethics - 10.1007/s11948-017-9894-2 Publisher: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11948-017-9894-2

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Codes of Ethics for Economists: A Pluralist View (Papers: Sheila C Dow | 2013)

Published/Released on April 15, 2013 | Posted by Admin on May 22, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , , , , ,

Abstract Within the discussion of ethics and economics some have considered designing a code of ethics for economists. But the idea of such a code is potentially problematic from a pluralist standpoint. Some possibilities are discussed here to show that any code concerning the behaviour of... More

Abstract Within the discussion of ethics and economics some have considered designing a code of ethics for economists. But the idea of such a code is potentially problematic from a pluralist standpoint. Some possibilities are discussed here to show that any code concerning the behaviour of economists presumes a particular view of human nature and thus of professionalism. Further, issues of socio-economic power in the profession pose problems for the interpretation and implementation of some possible principles, notably those referring to standards of competence and truth-seeking. It is therefore concluded that any code of ethics should take the form of general guidelines, with primacy given to the  ethics of pluralism: tolerance, even-handedness and open-mindedness, on which the interpretation of all other ethical considerations rests. Keywords: Code of ethics, epistemology, pluralism

Dow S (2013) Codes of Ethics for Economists: A Pluralist View, Economic Thought, 2 (1), pp. 20-29. Publisher  (open access): http://et.worldeconomicsassociation.org/papers/codes-of-ethics-for-economists-a-pluralist-view/

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A mathematical theory of knowledge, science, bias and pseudoscience (Papers: Daniele Fanelli ​| 2016)

Published/Released on April 28, 2016 | Posted by Admin on May 20, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

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The hexamethonium asthma study and the death of a normal volunteer in research (Papers: Julian Savulescu & Merle Spriggs | July 2001)

On July 19, after investigating the death of a previously healthy volunteer, the United States Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) suspended nearly all federally funded medical research involving human subjects at Johns Hopkins University. The death has been described as “particularly disturbing” because 24 year old Ellen Roche... More

On July 19, after investigating the death of a previously healthy volunteer, the United States Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) suspended nearly all federally funded medical research involving human subjects at Johns Hopkins University. The death has been described as “particularly disturbing” because 24 year old Ellen Roche was a healthy volunteer who had nothing to gain by taking part in the study.1 Her death has revived debate about the adequacy of oversight of medical research that followed the death of 18 year old Jesse Gelsinger who volunteered for a gene therapy experiment.

Savulescu J, Spriggs M (2002) The hexamethonium asthma study and the death of a normal volunteer in research. Journal of Medical Ethics. 28:3-4. Publisher (Open Access): http://jme.bmj.com/content/28/1/3

Also read 2001 New York Times story

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Controversies Surrounding Laud Humphreys’ Tearoom Trade: An Unsettling Example of Politics and Power in Methodological Critiques (Papers: Michael Lenza | 2004)

Published/Released on March 01, 2004 | Posted by Admin on May 20, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Abstract: Argues that Humphrey’s tearoom trade study, misinforms readers as much as it informs, regarding moral and ethical foundations for research with human subjects. States that Humphrey’s tearoom study made significant positive contributions to the population he studied. Concludes that few studies in sociology have accomplished... More

Abstract: Argues that Humphrey’s tearoom trade study, misinforms readers as much as it informs, regarding moral and ethical foundations for research with human subjects. States that Humphrey’s tearoom study made significant positive contributions to the population he studied. Concludes that few studies in sociology have accomplished as much in a single work. Keywords: Political theory, Homosexuality, Sociology

Lenza M, (2004) Controversies surrounding Laud Humphreys’ tearoom trade: an unsettling example of politics and power in methodological critiques. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 24(3/4/5) pp.20-31 doi: 10.1108/01443330410790858 Publisher: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/01443330410790858

Tearoom Trade on Google Books

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Recruitment of reviewers is becoming harder at some journals: a test of the influence of reviewer fatigue at six journals in ecology and evolution (Papers: Charles W. Fox, et al | 2017)

Published/Released on March 08, 2017 | Posted by Admin on May 19, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , ,

Abstract Background It is commonly reported by editors that it has become harder to recruit reviewers for peer review and that this is because individuals are being asked to review too often and are experiencing reviewer fatigue. However, evidence supporting these arguments is... More

Abstract Background It is commonly reported by editors that it has become harder to recruit reviewers for peer review and that this is because individuals are being asked to review too often and are experiencing reviewer fatigue. However, evidence supporting these arguments is largely anecdotal. Main body [colored_box]We examine responses of individuals to review invitations for six journals in ecology and evolution. The proportion of invitations that lead to a submitted review has been decreasing steadily over 13 years (2003–2015) for four of the six journals examined, with a cumulative effect that has been quite substantial (average decline from 56% of review invitations generating a review in 2003 to just 37% in 2015). The likelihood that an invitee agrees to review declines significantly with the number of invitations they receive in a year. However, the average number of invitations being sent to prospective reviewers and the proportion of individuals being invited more than once per year has not changed much over these 13 years, despite substantial increases in the total number of review invitations being sent by these journals—the reviewer base has expanded concomitant with this growth in review requests . Conclusions The proportion of review invitations that lead to a review being submitted has been declining steadily for four of the six journals examined here, but reviewer fatigue is not likely the primary explanation for this decline. . Keywords Peer review, Reviewers, Reviewer fatigue, Scholarly journals .

Fox CW, Albert AYK and Vines TH (2017) Recruitment of reviewers is becoming harder at some journals: a test of the influence of reviewer fatigue at six journals in ecology and evolution. Research Integrity and Peer Review. 2(3) DOI: 10.1186/s41073-017-0027-x Publisher (open access): http://researchintegrityjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41073-017-0027-x

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First, Do No Harm: The US Sexually Transmitted Disease Experiments in Guatemala (Papers: Michael Rodriguez and Robert García | 2013)

Abstract [colored_box]Beginning in 1946, the United States government immorally and unethically—and, arguably, illegally—engaged in research experiments in which more than 5000 uninformed and unconsenting Guatemalan people were intentionally infected with bacteria that cause sexually transmitted diseases. Many have been left untreated to the present day. More

Abstract [colored_box]Beginning in 1946, the United States government immorally and unethically—and, arguably, illegally—engaged in research experiments in which more than 5000 uninformed and unconsenting Guatemalan people were intentionally infected with bacteria that cause sexually transmitted diseases. Many have been left untreated to the present day. . Although US President Barack Obama apologized in 2010, and although the US Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues found the Guatemalan experiments morally wrong, little if anything has been done to compensate the victims and their families. . We explore the backdrop for this unethical medical research and violation of human rights and call for steps the United States should take to provide relief and compensation to Guatemala and its people. .

Rodriguez MA, & García R. (2013). First, Do No Harm: The US Sexually Transmitted Disease Experiments in Guatemala. American Journal of Public Health, 103(12), 2122–2126. http://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301520 Publisher (open access): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3828982/ .

Also read 2014 paper by Barry Lyons 2015 video recording of a lecture by Daniel Sulmasy Link to 2011 Presidential Commission report (PDF)

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Laying the Groundwork: A Practical Guide for Ethical Research with Indigenous Communities (Papers: Julia K. Riddell, et al)

Abstract Although there are numerous ethical guidelines for research with Indigenous communities, not all research is conducted in an ethical, culturally respectful, and effective way. To address this gap, we review four ethical frameworks for research with Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Drawing upon our experiences conducting... More

Abstract Although there are numerous ethical guidelines for research with Indigenous communities, not all research is conducted in an ethical, culturally respectful, and effective way. To address this gap, we review four ethical frameworks for research with Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Drawing upon our experiences conducting a transformative social justice research project in five Indigenous communities, we discuss the ethical tensions we have encountered and how we have attempted to address these challenges. Finally, drawing on these experiences, we make recommendations to support those planning to conduct research with Indigenous Peoples in Canada. We discuss the importance of training to highlight the intricacies and nuances of bringing the ethical guidelines to life through co-created research with Indigenous communities. Keywords research ethics, Indigenous communities, community-based research Acknowledgments We are deeply grateful to our partner communities who have walked beside us on our research journey.

Riddell JK, Salamanca A, Pepler DJ, Cardinal S, McIvor O (2017). Laying the Groundwork: A Practical Guide for Ethical Research with Indigenous Communities. The International Indigenous Policy Journal, 8(2) . Retrieved from: http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/iipj/ vol8/iss2/6 DOI: 10.18584/iipj.2017.8.2.6 Publisher: http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1332&context=iipj

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Promoting Responsible Research Conduct: A South African Perspective (Papers: Lyn Horn | 2017)

Abstract A great deal of effort has gone into developing capacity in the sphere of human research protection programmes in South Africa and Africa over the last decade or more, by several international organisations. However the promotion of the broader agenda of research integrity or ‘RCR’... More

Abstract A great deal of effort has gone into developing capacity in the sphere of human research protection programmes in South Africa and Africa over the last decade or more, by several international organisations. However the promotion of the broader agenda of research integrity or ‘RCR’ (Responsible Conduct of Research) has lagged behind. From a global perspective South Africa and other African countries are actively involved in research endeavours and collaborations across a very broad spectrum of scientific fields. For this research to fulfil its potential social value it must be reliable and trustworthy and hence it is essential that research institutions and universities take the promotion of research integrity seriously. The purpose of this paper is to consider the role of an institutional office of research integrity within the context of academic research particularly in South Africa but also in Africa. I will reflect on my own experience over a period of five years as a research integrity officer at a South African academic institution to highlight concerns in five domains; the promotion of an ethic of responsibility in opposition to compliance and bureaucracy, collaboration ethics and collegiality especially in the context of North-South collaborations, authorship and publication ethics, the problem of plagiarism and the utility of policy and procedure. I will suggest that the establishment of such an office can be of great value in the promotion of a broad culture of research ethics and responsible research conduct. The possible role and scope of function of an institutional office of research integrity will be briefly outlined. Keywords Research integrity, Research ethics, Institutional review board, Plagiarism, Compliance

Horn, LJ (2017) Promoting Responsible Research Conduct: A South African Perspective. Journal of Academic Ethics 15(1) 59-72. doi:10.1007/s10805-016-9272-8 Publisher: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10805-016-9272-8/fulltext.html?wt_mc=alerts.TOCjournals

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What does research reproducibility mean? (Papers: Steven N. Goodman, et al | 2016)

Published/Released on June 01, 2016 | Posted by Admin on May 13, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

Abstract The language and conceptual framework of “research reproducibility” are nonstandard and unsettled across the sciences. In this Perspective, we review an array of explicit and implicit definitions of reproducibility and related terminology, and discuss how to avoid potential misunderstandings when these terms are used as... More

Abstract The language and conceptual framework of “research reproducibility” are nonstandard and unsettled across the sciences. In this Perspective, we review an array of explicit and implicit definitions of reproducibility and related terminology, and discuss how to avoid potential misunderstandings when these terms are used as a surrogate for “truth.”

Goodman S, Fanelli D, Ioannidis JPA (2016) What does reproducibility mean? Science Translational Medicine - 8(341), pp. 341ps12 DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaf5027 Publisher: http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/8/341/341ps12

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More a marathon than a hurdle: towards children’s informed consent in a study on safety (Papers: Tim P More, et al)

Published/Released on May 02, 2017 | Posted by Admin on May 9, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

Abstract Informed consent is critical in research with children. Although much has been written about the need to see consent as an ongoing process, less has considered how to do it in practice. This article reflects on the authors’ experiences of conducting a piece of research... More

Abstract Informed consent is critical in research with children. Although much has been written about the need to see consent as an ongoing process, less has considered how to do it in practice. This article reflects on the authors’ experiences of conducting a piece of research focusing on children’s experiences of safety from abuse within institutional contexts. It draws on feedback provided by participants and the guidance of three Children’s Reference Groups. The importance of presenting information in accessible and appropriate ways, of providing opportunities for participants to negotiate their participation and for in-the-moment challenges be dealt with collaboratively and reflexively are stressed. To illustrate our approach, we provide a number of consent tools and describe how they were utilised.

Moore TP, McArthur M & Noble-Carr D (2017) More a marathon than a hurdle: towards children’s informed consent in a study on safety. Qualitative Research. doi: 10.1177/1468794117700708 Publisher: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1468794117700708

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Social sciences lose out again in Common Rule reform (Papers: Robert Dingwall | 2017)

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Abstract The Common Rule's incoherent approach to ethics regulation will change little in the way institutional review boards and researchers interact, says Robert Dingwall.

Dingwall R (2017) Social Sciences Lose out Again in Common Rule Reform. Nature Human Behaviour 1 (April 7, 2017): 83, doi:10.1038/s41562–017–0083. Publisher: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41562-017-0083

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How many scientists fabricate and falsify research? A systematic review and meta-analysis of survey data (Papers: Daniele Fanelli | 2009)

Published/Released on May 29, 2009 | Posted by Admin on April 24, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , , , ,

Abstract The frequency with which scientists fabricate and falsify data, or commit other forms of scientific misconduct is a matter of controversy. Many surveys have asked scientists directly whether they have committed or know of a colleague who committed research misconduct, but their results appeared difficult... More

Abstract The frequency with which scientists fabricate and falsify data, or commit other forms of scientific misconduct is a matter of controversy. Many surveys have asked scientists directly whether they have committed or know of a colleague who committed research misconduct, but their results appeared difficult to compare and synthesize. This is the first meta-analysis of these surveys. To standardize outcomes, the number of respondents who recalled at least one incident of misconduct was calculated for each question, and the analysis was limited to behaviours that distort scientific knowledge: fabrication, falsification, “cooking” of data, etc… Survey questions on plagiarism and other forms of professional misconduct were excluded. The final sample consisted of 21 surveys that were included in the systematic review, and 18 in the meta-analysis. A pooled weighted average of 1.97% (N = 7, 95%CI: 0.86–4.45) of scientists admitted to have fabricated, falsified or modified data or results at least once –a serious form of misconduct by any standard– and up to 33.7% admitted other questionable research practices. In surveys asking about the behaviour of colleagues, admission rates were 14.12% (N = 12, 95% CI: 9.91–19.72) for falsification, and up to 72% for other questionable research practices. Meta-regression showed that self reports surveys, surveys using the words “falsification” or “fabrication”, and mailed surveys yielded lower percentages of misconduct. When these factors were controlled for, misconduct was reported more frequently by medical/pharmacological researchers than others. Considering that these surveys ask sensitive questions and have other limitations, it appears likely that this is a conservative estimate of the true prevalence of scientific misconduct.

Fanelli D (2009) How Many Scientists Fabricate and Falsify Research? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Survey Data. PLoS ONE 4(5): e5738. Publisher (open access): http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0005738

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Do Pressures to Publish Increase Scientists’ Bias? An Empirical Support from US States Data (Papers: Daniele Fanelli | 2010)

Published/Released on April 21, 2010 | Posted by Admin on April 24, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , , , ,

Abstract The growing competition and “publish or perish” culture in academia might conflict with the objectivity and integrity of research, because it forces scientists to produce “publishable” results at all costs. Papers are less likely to be published and to be cited if they report “negative”... More

Abstract The growing competition and “publish or perish” culture in academia might conflict with the objectivity and integrity of research, because it forces scientists to produce “publishable” results at all costs. Papers are less likely to be published and to be cited if they report “negative” results (results that fail to support the tested hypothesis). Therefore, if publication pressures increase scientific bias, the frequency of “positive” results in the literature should be higher in the more competitive and “productive” academic environments. This study verified this hypothesis by measuring the frequency of positive results in a large random sample of papers with a corresponding author based in the US. Across all disciplines, papers were more likely to support a tested hypothesis if their corresponding authors were working in states that, according to NSF data, produced more academic papers per capita. The size of this effect increased when controlling for state's per capita R&D expenditure and for study characteristics that previous research showed to correlate with the frequency of positive results, including discipline and methodology. Although the confounding effect of institutions' prestige could not be excluded (researchers in the more productive universities could be the most clever and successful in their experiments), these results support the hypothesis that competitive academic environments increase not only scientists' productivity but also their bias. The same phenomenon might be observed in other countries where academic competition and pressures to publish are high.

Citation: Fanelli D (2010) Do Pressures to Publish Increase Scientists' Bias? An Empirical Support from US States Data. PLoS ONE 5(4): e10271. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010271 Publisher (open access): http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0010271

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Reply to de Winter and Dodou (2014): Growing bias and the hierarchy are actually supported, despite different design, errors, and disconfirmation-biases (Papers: Daniele Fanelli | 2014)

Published/Released on July 28, 2014 | Posted by Admin on April 23, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , , , , , , ,

I appreciate the efforts that de Winter and Dodou (2014) have put into replicating and challenging claims made by Fanelli (2010, 2012), as well as those of Pautasso (2010). This is how all sciences should make progress, and it is therefore both a duty and an honour to respond... More

I appreciate the efforts that de Winter and Dodou (2014) have put into replicating and challenging claims made by Fanelli (2010, 2012), as well as those of Pautasso (2010). This is how all sciences should make progress, and it is therefore both a duty and an honour to respond to this challenge. The results presented are largely in agreement with claims by Fanelli (2012 and 2010), but this fact is obfuscated by a somewhat selective interpretation of findings, reinforced by differences in study design, and major flaws in the sampling and analytical design. FLAWS IN INTERPRETATION: 1) Fanelli (2012) claimed that negative results are disappearing in percentage, which is exactly what is found here. Even de Winter and Dodou (2014) quote Fanelli (2012) as using percentage figures, so I am quite baffled as to why they consider their results at odds with mine. For the record, the absolute number of negative results in Fanelli (2012) did not show a decline, and it was never claimed in the paper that it did...

Fanelli D (2014) Reply to de Winter and Dodou (2014): Growing bias and the hierarchy are actually supported, despite different design, errors, and disconfirmation-biases. Peer J - commentary. (non peer-reviewed) This is the original pre-print the comment replies to. Access this preprint

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Conservative Tests under Satisficing Models of Publication Bias (Papers: Justin McCrary, et al 2016)

Published/Released on February 22, 2016 | Posted by Admin on April 22, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , , , , , ,

Abstract Publication bias leads consumers of research to observe a selected sample of statistical estimates calculated by producers of research. We calculate critical values for statistical significance that could help to adjust after the fact for the distortions created by this selection effect, assuming that the only source... More

Abstract Publication bias leads consumers of research to observe a selected sample of statistical estimates calculated by producers of research. We calculate critical values for statistical significance that could help to adjust after the fact for the distortions created by this selection effect, assuming that the only source of publication bias is file drawer bias. These adjusted critical values are easy to calculate and differ from unadjusted critical values by approximately 50%—rather than rejecting a null hypothesis when the t-ratio exceeds 2, the analysis suggests rejecting a null hypothesis when the t-ratio exceeds 3. Samples of published social science research indicate that on average, across research fields, approximately 30% of published t-statistics fall between the standard and adjusted cutoffs.

McCrary J, Christensen G, Fanelli D (2016) Conservative Tests under Satisficing Models of Publication Bias. PLoS ONE 11(2): e0149590. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149590 Publisher: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0149590

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Academic Research in the 21st Century: Maintaining Scientific Integrity in a Climate of Perverse Incentives and Hypercompetition (Papers: Marc A. Edwards and Siddhartha Roy | 2017)

Over the last 50 years, we argue that incentives for academic scientists have become increasingly perverse in terms of competition for research funding, development of quantitative metrics to measure performance, and a changing business model for higher education itself. Furthermore, decreased discretionary funding at the federal and state level... More

Over the last 50 years, we argue that incentives for academic scientists have become increasingly perverse in terms of competition for research funding, development of quantitative metrics to measure performance, and a changing business model for higher education itself. Furthermore, decreased discretionary funding at the federal and state level is creating a hypercompetitive environment between government agencies (e.g., EPA, NIH, CDC), for scientists in these agencies, and for academics seeking funding from all sources—the combination of perverse incentives and decreased funding increases pressures that can lead to unethical behavior. If a critical mass of scientists become untrustworthy, a tipping point is possible in which the scientific enterprise itself becomes inherently corrupt and public trust is lost, risking a new dark age with devastating consequences to humanity. Academia and federal agencies should better support science as a public good, and incentivize altruistic and ethical outcomes, while de-emphasizing output.

Edwards Marc A. and Roy Siddhartha. Academic Research in the 21st Century: Maintaining Scientific Integrity in a Climate of Perverse Incentives and Hypercompetition. Environmental Engineering Science. January 2017, 34(1): 51-61. doi:10.1089/ees.2016.0223. Publisher: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/ees.2016.0223

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Neutralising fair credit: factors that influence unethical authorship practices (Brad S Trinkle et al 2017)

[colored_box]This study experimentally tests whether the techniques of neutralisation as identified in the criminal justice literature influence graduate student willingness to engage in questionable research practices (QRPs). Our results indicate that US-born graduate students are more willing to add an undeserved coauthor if the person who requests it is... More

[colored_box]This study experimentally tests whether the techniques of neutralisation as identified in the criminal justice literature influence graduate student willingness to engage in questionable research practices (QRPs). Our results indicate that US-born graduate students are more willing to add an undeserved coauthor if the person who requests it is a faculty member in the student's department as opposed to a fellow student. Students are most likely to add an undeserving author if a faculty member is also their advisor. In addition, four techniques of neutralisation, ‘diffusion of responsibility’, ‘defence of necessity’, ‘advantageous comparison’ and ‘euphemistic labelling’, are associated with student willingness to act unethically. Participants who had received responsible conduct of research training were no less likely to commit the violation than those who had not. Knowledge of these influencing factors for QRPs will provide for opportunities to improve research ethics education strategies and materials. .

Trinkle BS, Phillips T, Hall A, Moffatt B (2017) Neutralising fair credit: factors that influence unethical authorship practices. Journal of Medical Ethics Published Online First: 31 January 2017. doi: 10.1136/medethics-2015-103365 Publisher (open access): http://jme.bmj.com/content/early/2017/01/31/medethics-2015-103365

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Time to publication for publicly funded clinical trials in Australia: an observational study (Papers: Linn Beate Strand, et al | 2017)

Published/Released on March 01, 2017 | Posted by Admin on April 16, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , , , ,

Abstract Objective To examine the length of time between receiving funding and publishing the protocol and main paper for randomised controlled trials. Design An observational study using survival analysis. Setting Publicly funded health and medical research in Australia. More

Abstract Objective To examine the length of time between receiving funding and publishing the protocol and main paper for randomised controlled trials. Design An observational study using survival analysis. Setting Publicly funded health and medical research in Australia. Participants Randomised controlled trials funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia between 2008 and 2010. Main outcome measures Time from funding to the protocol paper and main results paper. Multiple variable survival models examining whether study characteristics predicted publication times. Results We found 77 studies with a total funding of $A59 million. The median time to publication of the protocol paper was 6.4 years after funding (95% CI 4.1 to 8.1). The proportion with a published protocol paper 8 years after funding was 0.61 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.74). The median time to publication of the main results paper was 7.1 years after funding (95% CI 6.3 to 7.6). The proportion with a published main results paper 8 years after funding was 0.72 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.87). The HRs for how study characteristics might influence timing were generally close to one with narrow CIs, the notable exception was that a longer study length lengthened the time to the main paper (HR=0.62 per extra study year, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.89). Conclusions Despite the widespread registration of clinical trials, there remain serious concerns of trial results not being published or being published with a long delay. We have found that these same concerns apply to protocol papers, which should be publishable soon after funding. Funding agencies could set a target of publishing the protocol paper within 18 months of funding.

Strand LB, Clarke P, Graves N, et al Time to publication for publicly funded clinical trials in Australia: an observational study. BMJ Open 2017;7:e012212. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012212 Publisher (open access): http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/7/3/e012212.info

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Increased Publication in Predatory Journals by Developing Countries’ Institutions: What it Entails? And What Can be Done? (Papers: Mulubrhan Balehegn | 2017)

ABSTRACT Recently, there has been an alarming increase in the number of “academic” papers published in vanity journals and publishers. Such journals, dubbed predatory because their main objective is making money out of authors, compromise or completely abandon the peer review system. An increase in publishing... More

ABSTRACT Recently, there has been an alarming increase in the number of “academic” papers published in vanity journals and publishers. Such journals, dubbed predatory because their main objective is making money out of authors, compromise or completely abandon the peer review system. An increase in publishing with such journals, which is common in developing counties, will affect the quality of science, excellence, development, and individual researchers' and institutions' professional reputation. In this article, the author discusses strategies for individual researchers and institutions for identifying and discouraging publishing in predatory journals. Moreover, suggestions on how to deal with faculty who have published and already bestowed positions on the grounds of papers published in predatory journals are also given. Strategies and suggestions discussed in this article can provide insights to librarians and publication officers on how to curb the problem of predatory publications. KEYWORDS: Academic promotion, predatory journals, publication fraud, zombie professors

Balehegn, M. (2017) Increased Publication in Predatory Journals by Developing Countries' Institutions: What it Entails? And What Can be Done? International Information & Library Review.: 1-4 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10572317.2016.1278188 Publisher: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10572317.2016.1278188

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Why Growing Retractions Are (Mostly) a Good Sign (Papers: Daniele Fanelli | 2013)

Summary Points

  • Corrections to scientific papers have been published for much longer than retractions, and show little sign of a recent increase.
  • The number of journals issuing retractions has grown dramatically in recent years, but the number of retractions per retracting-journal has not increased.
  • The... More

    Summary Points

    • Corrections to scientific papers have been published for much longer than retractions, and show little sign of a recent increase.
    • The number of journals issuing retractions has grown dramatically in recent years, but the number of retractions per retracting-journal has not increased.
    • The number of queries and allegations made to the US Office of Research Integrity has grown, but the frequency of its findings of misconduct has not increased.
    • Therefore, the rising number of retractions is most likely to be caused by a growing propensity to retract flawed and fraudulent papers, and there is little evidence of an increase in the prevalence of misconduct.
    • Statistics on retractions and findings of misconduct are best used to make inferences about weaknesses in the system of scientific self-correction.
    Research Integrity Series This is one article in an occasional PLOS Medicine series on research integrity that examines issues affecting the ethics of health research worldwide.

    Fanelli D (2013) Why Growing Retractions Are (Mostly) a Good Sign. PLoS Med 10(12): e1001563. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001563 Publisher (open access): http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1001563

    Also see Publishing: Rise in retractions is a signal of integrity (Nature Correspondence | May 2014)

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Why Research Oversight Bodies Should Interview Research Subjects (Papers: Carl Elliott | 2017)

[colored_box]Abstract Research oversight bodies conducting for-cause investigations often fail to interview research subjects who have complaints of mistreatment. I argue that this failure is a mistake for three reasons. First, because written medical records are often inaccurate, there may be no entries in a study subject’s... More

[colored_box]Abstract Research oversight bodies conducting for-cause investigations often fail to interview research subjects who have complaints of mistreatment. I argue that this failure is a mistake for three reasons. First, because written medical records are often inaccurate, there may be no entries in a study subject’s record about research-related medical harms. Second, research staff members write the reports that make up the research study records. If there are allegations that a research subject experienced research harms, subjects will rightly feel it is unfair that the for-cause investigation relies only on records written and kept by the research team. Third, the outcome of a for-cause investigation may be influenced by the ethical distance that results from failure to learn directly from research subjects about their complaints of mistreatment. . Keywords: Research subjects, human experimentation, human research subject protections, research ethics, research oversight, for-cause investigations .

Elliott C (2017) Why Research Oversight Bodies Should Interview Research Subjects. IRB: Ethics & Human Research. March-April 2017 39(2) Publisher: http://www.thehastingscenter.org/irb_article/research-oversight-bodies-interview-research-subjects/

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The forensic implications of predatory publishing (Paper: Roger Byard | 2016)

Published/Released on April 02, 2016 | Posted by Admin on April 5, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

“There are books of which the backs and the cove... More

“There are books of which the backs and the covers are by far the best parts” Charles Dickens (1812–1870) [colored_box]An email that I received recently requested my participation in a conference on “coastal zones” because of my academic standing in the field. It began: “Dear Byard, Greetings for the day! Lets Exploit yourself to the world. Because we believe that ‘You are the one that can inspires the common, to change the recitation of emerging world’” [sic]. The reality is, however, somewhat different—I have never written or presented a paper on “coastal zones”. In fact the only recent experience that I have had of coastal zones is taking my dog for a walk at the beach near Adelaide on weekends. This is hardly an activity to qualify for international pre-eminence, although Lucy (the dog) does seem to enjoy it. The sad fact is that nowadays we all receive persistent marketing emails such as this that are often written in idiosyncratic, hyperbolic, and incorrect English that invite us to be on editorial boards, to write papers, monographs and text books, and to travel to the far reaches of the planet to present at conferences on subjects ranging from oceanographic research to attention deficit disorder. Most, if not all, are in no way related to the specific areas of research or expertise of the recipient. The reason for this is that it is inconsequential to the publishers/organizers, as long as they can have enough participants/contributors who are who willing to pay the often substantial fees that are charged for involvement in such activities. Frankly some of these requests are not too dissimilar to emails that sometimes arrive congratulating the recipient on winning several billion dollars—all that is required are full banking details, including passwords. .

Byard, R.W.(2016) The forensic implications of predatory publishing. Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology 12(04): 391. doi:10.1007/s12024-016-9771-3 Publisher (open access): https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12024-016-9771-3

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The false academy: predatory publishing in science and bioethics (Papers: Stefan Eriksson & Gert Helgesson | 2016)

Abstract This paper describes and discusses the phenomenon ‘predatory publishing’, in relation to both academic journals and books, and suggests a list of characteristics by which to identify predatory journals. It also raises the question whether traditional publishing houses have accompanied rogue publishers upon this path.... More

Abstract This paper describes and discusses the phenomenon ‘predatory publishing’, in relation to both academic journals and books, and suggests a list of characteristics by which to identify predatory journals. It also raises the question whether traditional publishing houses have accompanied rogue publishers upon this path. It is noted that bioethics as a discipline does not stand unaffected by this trend. Towards the end of the paper it is discussed what can and should be done to eliminate or reduce the effects of this development. The paper concludes that predatory publishing is a growing phenomenon that has the potential to greatly affect both bioethics and science at large. Publishing papers and books for profit, without any genuine concern for content, but with the pretence of applying authentic academic procedures of critical scrutiny, brings about a worrying erosion of trust in scientific publishing. Keywords Predatory publishing, Publication ethics, Peer review, Bioethics

Eriksson S & Helgesson G. (2016) The false academy: predatory publishing in science and bioethics. Medicine Health Care and Philosophy. doi:10.1007/s11019-016-9740-3 Publisher (Open access): http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11019-016-9740-3

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Interventions to prevent misconduct and promote integrity in research and publication (Papers: Ana Marusic, et al | 2016)

Abstract Background: Improper practices and unprofessional conduct in clinical research have been shown to waste a significant portion of healthcare funds and harm public health. Objectives: Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of educational or policy interventions in research integrity or responsible conduct of research on... More

Abstract Background: Improper practices and unprofessional conduct in clinical research have been shown to waste a significant portion of healthcare funds and harm public health. Objectives: Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of educational or policy interventions in research integrity or responsible conduct of research on the behaviour and attitudes of researchers in health and other research areas. Search methods: [colored_box]We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, LILACS and CINAHL health research bibliographical databases, as well as the Academic Search Complete, AGRICOLA, GeoRef, PsycINFO, ERIC, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. We performed the last search on 15 April 2015 and the search was limited to articles published between 1990 and 2014, inclusive. We also searched conference proceedings and abstracts from research integrity conferences and specialized websites. We handsearched 14 journals that regularly publish research integrity research. . Selection criteria: We included studies that measured the effects of one or more interventions, i.e. any direct or indirect procedure that may have an impact on research integrity and responsible conduct of research in its broadest sense, where participants were any stakeholders in research and publication processes, from students to policy makers. We included randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, such as controlled before-and-after studies, with comparisons of outcomes in the intervention versus non-intervention group or before versus after the intervention. Studies without a control group were not included in the review. . Data collection and analysis: We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. To assess the risk of bias in non-randomized studies, we used a modified Cochrane tool, in which we used four out of six original domains (blinding, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting, other sources of bias) and two additional domains (comparability of groups and confounding factors). We categorized our primary outcome into the following levels: 1) organizational change attributable to intervention, 2) behavioural change, 3) acquisition of knowledge/skills and 4) modification of attitudes/perceptions. The secondary outcome was participants' reaction to the intervention. . Main results: Thirty-one studies involving 9571 participants, described in 33 articles, met the inclusion criteria. All were published in English. Fifteen studies were randomized controlled trials, nine were controlled before-and-after studies, four were non-equivalent controlled studies with a historical control, one was a non-equivalent controlled study with a post-test only and two were non-equivalent controlled studies with pre- and post-test findings for the intervention group and post-test for the control group. Twenty-one studies assessed the effects of interventions related to plagiarism and 10 studies assessed interventions in research integrity/ethics. Participants included undergraduates, postgraduates and academics from a range of research disciplines and countries, and the studies assessed different types of outcomes.We judged most of the included randomized controlled trials to have a high risk of bias in at least one of the assessed domains, and in the case of non-randomized trials there were no attempts to alleviate the potential biases inherent in the non-randomized designs.We identified a range of interventions aimed at reducing research misconduct. Most interventions involved some kind of training, but methods and content varied greatly and included face-to-face and online lectures, interactive online modules, discussion groups, homework and practical exercises. Most studies did not use standardized or validated outcome measures and it was impossible to synthesize findings from studies with such diverse interventions, outcomes and participants. Overall, there is very low quality evidence that various methods of training in research integrity had some effects on participants' attitudes to ethical issues but minimal (or short-lived) effects on their knowledge. Training about plagiarism and paraphrasing had varying effects on participants' attitudes towards plagiarism and their confidence in avoiding it, but training that included practical exercises appeared to be more effective. Training on plagiarism had inconsistent effects on participants' knowledge about and ability to recognize plagiarism. Active training, particularly if it involved practical exercises or use of text-matching software, generally decreased the occurrence of plagiarism although results were not consistent. The design of a journal's author contribution form affected the truthfulness of information supplied about individuals' contributions and the proportion of listed contributors who met authorship criteria. We identified no studies testing interventions for outcomes at the organizational level. The numbers of events and the magnitude of intervention effects were generally small, so the evidence is likely to be imprecise. No adverse effects were reported. . Authors' conclusions: The evidence base relating to interventions to improve research integrity is incomplete and the studies that have been done are heterogeneous, inappropriate for meta-analyses and their applicability to other settings and population is uncertain. Many studies had a high risk of bias because of the choice of study design and interventions were often inadequately reported. Even when randomized designs were used, findings were difficult to generalize. Due to the very low quality of evidence, the effects of training in responsible conduct of research on reducing research misconduct are uncertain. Low quality evidence indicates that training about plagiarism, especially if it involves practical exercises and use of text-matching software, may reduce the occurrence of plagiarism. .

Marusic A, Wager E, Utrobicic A, Rothstein HR and Sambunjak D (2016) Interventions to prevent misconduct and promote integrity in research and publication. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 4. Art. No.: MR000038. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.MR000038.pub2. Research Gate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/299642408... [accessed Jan 29, 2017] Publisher: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1002/14651858.MR000038/asset/MR000038.pdf... .

Also see: http://retractionwatch.com/2016/04/12/do-interventions-to-reduce-misconduct-actually-work-maybe-not-says-new-report/

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Responsibilities in international research: a new look revisited (Papers: Solomon R Benatar & Peter A Singer | 2010)

Following promulgation of the Nuremberg code in 1947, the ethics of research on human subjects has been a challenging and often contentious topic of debate. Escalation in the use of research participants in low-income countries over recent decades (stimulated by the HIV pandemic and the need to carry out... More

Following promulgation of the Nuremberg code in 1947, the ethics of research on human subjects has been a challenging and often contentious topic of debate. Escalation in the use of research participants in low-income countries over recent decades (stimulated by the HIV pandemic and the need to carry out clinical trials expeditiously on large numbers of patients), has intensified the debate on the ethics of international research and led to increasing attention both to exploitation of vulnerable subjects and to considerations of how the 10:90 gap in health and medical research (ie, 90% of resources being spent on 10% of the problems) could be narrowed. In 2000, prompted by the discussions over several years that led to the US NIH launching a capacity building programme on research ethics for members of research ethics committees in developing countries, we advanced a ‘new look’ for the ethics of international research.1 Since then progress has been made on several fronts. First, our ideas—considered somewhat radical and impractical at the time—have been provocatively addressed by scholars who have either contested them or advanced similar conceptions of what obligations international researchers have to research participants and communities in low income countries before, during and after clinical trials. Second, those researchers who have been sympathetic to our ideas have either endeavoured to put these into practice or have investigated the feasibility of doing so. Third, the intractability of the 10/90 gap and the escalation of interest in global health have sensitised many to the need to amplify the uptake of these ideas in practice...

Benatar SR, Singer PA (2010). Responsibilities in international research: a new look revisited. Journal of Medical Ethics 36(4) pp:194-197 Publisher: (Open Access here) http://jme.bmj.com/content/36/4/194.full

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To research (or not) that is the question: ethical issues in research when medical care is disrupted by political action: a case study from Eldoret, Kenya (Papers: Darlene R House, et al | 2016)

Abstract While considerable attention has been focused on understanding the myriad of ethical analysis in international research in low and middle income countries, new issues always arise that have not been anticipated in guidelines or studied extensively. The disruption of medical care arising as a direct... More

Abstract While considerable attention has been focused on understanding the myriad of ethical analysis in international research in low and middle income countries, new issues always arise that have not been anticipated in guidelines or studied extensively. The disruption of medical care arising as a direct result of political actions, including strikes, postelection violence and related activities, is one such issue that leaves physician-researchers struggling to manage often conflicting professional responsibilities. This paper discusses the ethical conflicts that arise for physician-researchers, particularly when disruption threatens the completion of a study or completion is possible but at the expense of not addressing unmet medical needs of patients. We review three pragmatic strategies and the ethical issues arising from each: not starting research, stopping research that has already started, and continuing research already initiated. We argue that during episodes of medical care disruption, research that has been started can be continued only if the ethical standards imposed at the beginning of the study can continue to be met; however, studies that have been approved but not yet started should not begin until the disruption has ended and ethical standards can again be assured.

House, D.R., Marete, I., Meslin, E.M. (2016) To research (or not) that is the question: ethical issues in research when medical care is disrupted by political action: a case study from Eldoret, Kenya. Journal of Medical Ethics. 42(1) pp:61–65 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2013-101490

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Copyright compliance and infringement in ResearchGate full-text journal articles (Papers: Hamid R. Jamali | February 2017

Published/Released on February 16, 2017 | Posted by Admin on March 27, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , ,

Abstract ResearchGate is increasingly used by scholars to upload the full-text of their articles and make them freely available for everyone. This study aims to investigate the extent to which ResearchGate members as authors of journal articles comply with publishers’ copyright policies when they self-archive full-text... More

Abstract ResearchGate is increasingly used by scholars to upload the full-text of their articles and make them freely available for everyone. This study aims to investigate the extent to which ResearchGate members as authors of journal articles comply with publishers’ copyright policies when they self-archive full-text of their articles on ResearchGate. A random sample of 500 English journal articles available as full-text on ResearchGate were investigated. 108 articles (21.6%) were open access (OA) published in OA journals or hybrid journals. Of the remaining 392 articles, 61 (15.6%) were preprint, 24 (6.1%) were post-print and 307 (78.3%) were published (publisher) PDF. The key finding was that 201 (51.3%) out of 392 non-OA articles infringed the copyright and were non-compliant with publishers’ policy. While 88.3% of journals allowed some form of self-archiving (SHERPA/RoMEO green, blue or yellow journals), the majority of non-compliant cases (97.5%) occurred when authors self-archived publishers’ PDF files (final published version). This indicates that authors infringe copyright most of the time not because they are not allowed to self-archive, but because they use the wrong version, which might imply their lack of understanding of copyright policies and/or complexity and diversity of policies. Keywords ResearchGate, Copyright compliance, Copyright infringement, Depositing, Researchers, Journal articles, Open access, Self-archiving

Jamali, H.R. (2017) Copyright compliance and infringement in ResearchGate full-text journal articles. Scientometrics. doi:10.1007/s11192-017-2291-4 Publisher: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11192-017-2291-4

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Using Social Media as a Research Recruitment Tool: Ethical Issues and Recommendations (Papers: Luke Gelinas, et al | 2017)

Abstract The use of social media as a recruitment tool for research with humans is increasing, and likely to continue to grow. Despite this, to date there has been no specific regulatory guidance and there has been little in the bioethics literature to guide investigators and... More

Abstract The use of social media as a recruitment tool for research with humans is increasing, and likely to continue to grow. Despite this, to date there has been no specific regulatory guidance and there has been little in the bioethics literature to guide investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) faced with navigating the ethical issues such use raises. We begin to fill this gap by first defending a nonexceptionalist methodology for assessing social media recruitment; second, examining respect for privacy and investigator transparency as key norms governing social media recruitment; and, finally, analyzing three relatively novel aspects of social media recruitment: (i) the ethical significance of compliance with website “terms of use”; (ii) the ethics of recruiting from the online networks of research participants; and (iii) the ethical implications of online communication from and between participants. Two checklists aimed at guiding investigators and IRBs through the ethical issues are included as appendices. Keywords: ethics, privacy, recruitment, research, social media, transparency

Gelinas L, Pierce R, Winkler S, Cohen G, Fernandez H, and Bierer L&B (2017) Using Social Media as a Research Recruitment Tool: Ethical Issues and Recommendations, The American Journal of Bioethics, 17(3), pp3-14, DOI: 10.1080/15265161.2016.1276644 Publisher: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15265161.2016.1276644

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Reactively, Proactively, Implicitly, Explicitly? Academics’ Pedagogical Conceptions of how to Promote Research Ethics and Integrity (Papers: Heidi Hyytinen & Erika Löfström | 2017)

Abstract This article focuses on academics’ conceptions of teaching research ethics and integrity. Seventeen academics from a Finnish research intensive university participated in this qualitative study. The data were collected using a qualitative multi-method approach, including think-aloud and interview data. The material was scrutinized using thematic... More

Abstract This article focuses on academics’ conceptions of teaching research ethics and integrity. Seventeen academics from a Finnish research intensive university participated in this qualitative study. The data were collected using a qualitative multi-method approach, including think-aloud and interview data. The material was scrutinized using thematic analysis, with both deductive and inductive approaches. The results revealed variation in academics’ views on the responsibility for teaching research integrity, the methods employed to teach it and the necessity of intervening when misconduct occurs. The academics emphasized the responsibility of the individual teacher and the student to foster integrity as well as the shared responsibility of all members of the academic community. However, many academics felt that they themselves needed pedagogical training. Most shared the view that practices of responsible conduct in research can be explicitly and intentionally taught through demonstration, explanation, and practice. However, the academics also noted that learning research integrity and ethics takes place implicitly. A few questioned the need for and the utility of training in the form of courses or through an explicitly addressed topic included in, for instance, methods courses. Their views on the question of how to deal with alleged cases of misconduct varied. While many academics considered a proactive approach the best way to prevent misconduct, some trusted more in a reactive approach. The results show that, while in general academics agree on the importance of research ethics, their conceptions of teaching it vary. The teaching conception bears consequences for the teaching methods chosen, assignment of responsibility for both teaching and students learning, and for the way in which teachers believe that misconduct should be responded to. Keywords Research ethics, Research integrity, Ethics training, Preventing misconduct, Teaching conceptions

Hyytinen, H. & Löfström, E. (2017) Reactively, Proactively, Implicitly, Explicitly? Academics’ Pedagogical Conceptions of how to Promote Research Ethics and Integrity. Journal of Academic Ethics  15(1) 23-41. doi:10.1007/s10805-016-9271-9 Publisher: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10805-016-9271-9?no-access=true

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Safeguarding research integrity in China (Papers: Jane Qiu | 2015)

China has an impressive record in the total number of scientific publications in the past decade. In 2012, it churned out 193 733 Science Index Citation papers—4.7 times the 2002 level and second only to the United States. Unfortunately, the standards of science integrity has not kept up with the... More

China has an impressive record in the total number of scientific publications in the past decade. In 2012, it churned out 193 733 Science Index Citation papers—4.7 times the 2002 level and second only to the United States. Unfortunately, the standards of science integrity has not kept up with the pace of this development, and many cases of research misconduct have been reported. This prompts many to fear that the country is now facing a critical problem in the field of scientific ethics. In a forum chaired by National Science Review’s executive associate editor Mu-ming Poo, five panellists from diverse backgrounds discuss how serious the problem is, what the root causes are, and how to safeguard research integrity in China.

Jane Qiu (2015) Safeguarding research integrity in China. National Science Review (March 2015) 2 (1): 122-125. doi: 10.1093/nsr/nwv002 Publisher (open access): https://nsr.oxfordjournals.org/content/2/1/122.full.pdf+html

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Identity Theft in the Academic World Leads to Junk Science (Papers: Mehdi Dadkhah, et al | 2017)

Published/Released on January 10, 2017 | Posted by Admin on March 8, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , , , ,

Abstract In recent years, identity theft has been growing in the academic world. Cybercriminals create fake profiles for prominent scientists in attempts to manipulate the review and publishing process. Without permission, some fraudulent journals use the names of standout researchers on their editorial boards in the... More

Abstract In recent years, identity theft has been growing in the academic world. Cybercriminals create fake profiles for prominent scientists in attempts to manipulate the review and publishing process. Without permission, some fraudulent journals use the names of standout researchers on their editorial boards in the effort to look legitimate. This opinion piece, highlights some of the usual types of identity theft and their role in spreading junk science. Some general guidelines that editors and researchers can use against such attacks are presented. Keywords Junk science, Identity theft, Fake peer review, Academic misconduct

Dadkhah M, Lagzian M & Borchardt G(2017) Identity Theft in the Academic World Leads to Junk Science. Science and Engineering Ethics. doi:10.1007/s11948-016-9867-x Publisher: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11948-016-9867-x

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Creating a Community of Data Champions (Papers: Rosie Higman, et al | 2017)

Published/Released on February 20, 2017 | Posted by Admin on March 6, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , , , ,

[colored_box]Research Data Management (RDM) presents an unusual challenge for service providers in Higher Education. There is increased awareness of the need for training in this area but the nature of discipline-specific practices involved make it difficult to provide training across a multi-disciplinary organisation. Whilst most UK universities now have... More

[colored_box]Research Data Management (RDM) presents an unusual challenge for service providers in Higher Education. There is increased awareness of the need for training in this area but the nature of discipline-specific practices involved make it difficult to provide training across a multi-disciplinary organisation. Whilst most UK universities now have a research data team of some description, they are often small and rarely have the resources necessary to provide targeted training to the different disciplines and research career stages that they are increasingly expected to support. This practice paper describes the approach taken at the University of Cambridge to address this problem by creating a community of Data Champions. This collaborative initiative, working with researchers to provide training and advocacy for good RDM practice, allows for more discipline-specific training to be given, researchers to be credited for their expertise and an opportunity for those interested in RDM to exchange knowledge with others. The community of practice model has been used in many sectors, including Higher Education, to facilitate collaboration across organisational units and this initiative will adopt some of the same principles to improve communication across a decentralised institution. The Data Champions initiative at Cambridge was launched in September 2016 and this paper reports on the early months, plans for building the community in the future and the possible risks associated with this approach to providing RDM services. .

Rosie Higman, Marta Teperek and Danny Kingsley (2017) Creating a Community of Data Champions. Posted February 20, 2017. bioRxiv 104661; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/104661 PrePrint: http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2017/02/20/104661

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Traditional and Electronic Informed Consent for Biobanking: A Survey of U.S. Biobanks (Papers: Simon Christian, et al 2014)

Published/Released on December 15, 2014 | Posted by Admin on March 5, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , , , , , ,

Abstract: Biobanks face unique challenges obtaining consent from biospecimen contributors. Electronic consent (e-consent) presents one option for streamlining the biobank consent process, and improving contributor understanding of consent information. An e-mail survey was conducted to establish the extent of current biobank e-consent and interest in future... More

Abstract: Biobanks face unique challenges obtaining consent from biospecimen contributors. Electronic consent (e-consent) presents one option for streamlining the biobank consent process, and improving contributor understanding of consent information. An e-mail survey was conducted to establish the extent of current biobank e-consent and interest in future use of e-consent. A total of 235 biobanks were surveyed and 65 (28%) responded with a fully completed survey. Few of these 65 biobanks (8%) reported using e-consent; however, the majority (75%) were interested in e-consent. Many (48%) biobanks were in discussions with institutional stakeholders about using e-consent in the future. Anticipated benefits of e-consent included improved efficiency and increased enrollment. Perceived barriers to e-consent adoption included lack of funding, issues with human subjects approval, and factors affecting user uptake (e.g., computer literacy). Biobanks using e-consent reported cost, technology issues, and difficulty training staff as barriers to e-consent adoption. Traditional consenting methods (e.g., face-to-face, phone, and mail) continued to be used at biobanks reporting use of e-consent. The survey results suggest strong interest in e-consent among U.S. biobanks, and a need to consider a range of implementation issues, including user preferences and receptivity; institutional and technical support; integration with clinical data networks; electronic signature capture; and what type of e-consent to implement. Biobanks will need evidence-based guidance for purposes of addressing these issues, so that e-consent processes enhance efficiency, as well as contributor receptivity, understanding, and trust.

Simon Christian M, Klein David W, and Schartz Helen A (2014) Biopreservation and Biobanking. December 2014, 12(6): 423-429. doi:10.1089/bio.2014.0045 Publisher: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/bio.2014.0045

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Research Integrity in Greater China: Surveying Regulations, Perceptions and Knowledge of Research Integrity from a Hong Kong Perspective (Sara R Jordan and Phillip W Gray | 2013)

Abstract In their 2010 article 'Research Integrity in China: Problems and Prospects', Zeng and Resnik challenge others to engage in empirical research on research integrity in China. Here we respond to that call in three ways: first, we provide updates to their analysis of regulations and... More

Abstract In their 2010 article 'Research Integrity in China: Problems and Prospects', Zeng and Resnik challenge others to engage in empirical research on research integrity in China. Here we respond to that call in three ways: first, we provide updates to their analysis of regulations and allegations of scientific misconduct; second, we report on two surveys conducted in Hong Kong that provide empirical backing to describe ways in which problems and prospects that Zeng and Resnik identify are being explored; and third, we continue the discussion started by Zeng and Resnik, pointing to ways in which China's high-profile participation in international academic research presents concerns about research integrity. According to our research, based upon searches of both English and Chinese language literature and policies, and two surveys conducted in Hong Kong, academic faculty and research post-graduate students in Hong Kong are aware of and have a positive attitude towards responsible conduct of research. Although Hong Kong is but one small part of China, we present this research as a response to concerns Zeng and Resnik introduce and as a call for a continued conversation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. KEYWORDS: China; Education; Ethics; Hong Kong; Research Integrity; Research Misconduct; Responsible Conduct of Research

Jordan SR and Gray PW, (2013) Research Integrity in Greater China: Surveying Regulations, Perceptions and Knowledge of Research Integrity from a Hong Kong Perspective. Developing World Bioethics. 13, 3 Publisher: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22994886

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Research Integrity in China: Problems and Prospects (Papers: David Resnik and Weiqin Zeng | 2010

Abstract In little more than 30 years, China has recovered from the intellectual stagnation brought about by the Cultural Revolution to become a global leader in science and technology. Like other leading countries in science and technology, China has encountered some ethical problems related to the... More

Abstract In little more than 30 years, China has recovered from the intellectual stagnation brought about by the Cultural Revolution to become a global leader in science and technology. Like other leading countries in science and technology, China has encountered some ethical problems related to the conduct of research. China’s leaders have taken some steps to respond to these problems, such as developing ethics policies and establishing oversight committees. To keep moving forward, China needs to continue to take effective action to promote research integrity. Some of the challenges China faces include additional policy development, promoting education in responsible conduct of research, protecting whistle-blowers, and cultivating an ethical research environment. Keywords: Research integrity, China, ethics, misconduct, fraud, plagiarism, policies, education

Resnik  D and Zeng W (2010) Research Integrity in China: Problems and Prospects. Developing World Bioethics. Dec; 10(3): 164–171. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-8847.2009.00263.x Publisher (open access): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2891906/

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Guanxi networks and the gatekeeping practices of communication journals in China (Papers: Hongtao Li & Chin-Chuan Lee | 2014)

Abstract In China, scholarly journals are affiliated with the particular governing organizations that house them. This process of what can be characterized as danweization has given the editors of these journals almost unchallenged power, prompting the contributors to seek their favor through guanxi networks. Drawing on... More

Abstract In China, scholarly journals are affiliated with the particular governing organizations that house them. This process of what can be characterized as danweization has given the editors of these journals almost unchallenged power, prompting the contributors to seek their favor through guanxi networks. Drawing on fieldwork and in-depth interviews with key journal editors in media studies, this paper aims to explore the configuration of guanxi networks, the dynamics of guanxi practice in the gatekeeping process, and the implications of this practice for communication scholarship. We found that guanxi functions as a multi-layered particularism to facilitate the flow of information, to advance the priority of given papers, and to increase the rate at which such papers are published. In consequence, these journals publish a disproportionate number of articles by colleagues from the same sponsoring danwei. The operation of guanxi networks is so entrenched that it raises questions about the integrity of knowledge production and academic autonomy in China. Keywords: Chinese media journals, danweization, guanxi networks, multi-layered particularism, academic gatekeeping, academic autonomy

Hongtao Li & Chin-Chuan Lee (2014) Guanxi networks and the gatekeeping practices of communication journals in China. Chinese Journal of Communication. DOI: 10.1080/ 17544750.2014.965185 Publisher: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17544750.2014.965185

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The relationship between the author byline and contribution lists: a comparison of three general medical journals (Papers: Siluo Yang, et al 2017)

Published/Released on January 12, 2017 | Posted by Admin on February 11, 2017 | Keywords: , , ,

Abstract The author byline is an indispensable component of a scientific paper. Some journals have added contribution lists for each paper to provide detailed information of each author’s role. Many papers have explored, respectively, the byline and contribution lists. However, the relationship between the two remains... More

Abstract The author byline is an indispensable component of a scientific paper. Some journals have added contribution lists for each paper to provide detailed information of each author’s role. Many papers have explored, respectively, the byline and contribution lists. However, the relationship between the two remains unclear. We select three prominent general medical journals: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Annals of Internal Medicine (Annals), and PLOS Medicine (PLOS). We analyze the relationship between the author byline and contribution lists using four indexes. Four main findings emerged. First, the number, forms, and names of contribution lists significantly differed among the three journals, although they adopted the criteria of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Second, a U-shaped relationship exists between the extent of contribution and author order: the participation levels in contribution lists were highest for first authors, followed by last and second authors, and then middle authors with the lowest levels. Third, regarding the consistency between author order in the contribution list and byline, every contribution category has a high consistency in JAMA and Annals, while PLOS shows a low consistency, in general. Fourth, the three journals have a similar distribution for the first authors in the contribution category; the first author in the byline contributes the highest proportion, followed by the middle and second authors, and then the last author with the lowest proportion. We also develop recommendations to modify academic and writing practice: implement structured cross-contribution lists, unify formats and standards of contribution lists, draft the author contribution criteria in the social sciences and humanities, and consider author contribution lists in scientific evaluation. Keywords Authorship, Byline order, Author contribution list, Contribution representation

Yang S, Wolfram D & Wang F (2017) The relationship between the author byline and contribution lists: a comparison of three general medical journals. Scientometrics. doi:10.1007/s11192-016-2239-0 Publisher: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11192-016-2239-0

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The Role of Intuition in Risk/Benefit Decision-Making in Human Subjects Research (Papers: David B. Resnik | June 2016)

ABSTRACT One of the key principles of ethical research involving human subjects is that the risks of research to should be acceptable in relation to expected benefits. Institutional review board (IRB) members often rely on intuition to make risk/benefit decisions concerning proposed human studies. Some have... More

ABSTRACT One of the key principles of ethical research involving human subjects is that the risks of research to should be acceptable in relation to expected benefits. Institutional review board (IRB) members often rely on intuition to make risk/benefit decisions concerning proposed human studies. Some have objected to using intuition to make these decisions because intuition is unreliable and biased and lacks transparency. In this article, I examine the role of intuition in IRB risk/benefit decision-making and argue that there are practical and philosophical limits to our ability to reduce our reliance on intuition in this process. The fact that IRB risk/benefit decision-making involves intuition need not imply that it is hopelessly subjective or biased, however, since there are strategies that IRBs can employ to improve their decisions, such as using empirical data to estimate the probability of potential harms and benefits, developing classification systems to guide the evaluation of harms and benefits, and engaging in moral reasoning concerning the acceptability of risks. KEYWORDS: Benefits, human subjects research, institutional review boards, intuition, reasoning, risks

Resnik DB (2016) The Role of Intuition in Risk/Benefit Decision-Making in Human Subjects Research. Accountability in Research Policies and Quality Assurance 24(1) Publisher: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08989621.2016.1198978

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The false academy: predatory publishing in science and bioethics (Papers: Stefan Eriksson & Gert Helgesson | 2016)

Abstract This paper describes and discusses the phenomenon ‘predatory publishing’, in relation to both academic journals and books, and suggests a list of characteristics by which to identify predatory journals. It also raises the question whether traditional publishing houses have accompanied rogue publishers upon this path.... More

Abstract This paper describes and discusses the phenomenon ‘predatory publishing’, in relation to both academic journals and books, and suggests a list of characteristics by which to identify predatory journals. It also raises the question whether traditional publishing houses have accompanied rogue publishers upon this path. It is noted that bioethics as a discipline does not stand unaffected by this trend. Towards the end of the paper it is discussed what can and should be done to eliminate or reduce the effects of this development. The paper concludes that predatory publishing is a growing phenomenon that has the potential to greatly affect both bioethics and science at large. Publishing papers and books for profit, without any genuine concern for content, but with the pretence of applying authentic academic procedures of critical scrutiny, brings about a worrying erosion of trust in scientific publishing. Keywords Predatory publishing, Publication ethics, Peer review, Bioethics

Eriksson S & Helgesson G (2016) The false academy: predatory publishing in science and bioethics. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy. doi:10.1007/s11019-016-9740-3 Publisher (open access): http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11019-016-9740-3

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Why articles are retracted: a retrospective cross-sectional study of retraction notices at BioMed Central (Papers: Elizabeth Moylan and Maria Kowalczuk | 2016)

Abstract [colored_box]Objectives To assess why articles are retracted from BioMed Central journals, whether retraction notices adhered to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and are becoming more frequent as a proportion of published articles. . Design/setting Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 134 retractions from January 2000 to December... More

Abstract [colored_box]Objectives To assess why articles are retracted from BioMed Central journals, whether retraction notices adhered to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and are becoming more frequent as a proportion of published articles. . Design/setting Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 134 retractions from January 2000 to December 2015. . Results 134 retraction notices were published during this timeframe. Although they account for 0.07% of all articles published (190 514 excluding supplements, corrections, retractions and commissioned content), the rate of retraction is rising. COPE guidelines on retraction were adhered to in that an explicit reason for each retraction was given. However, some notices did not document who retracted the article (eight articles, 6%) and others were unclear whether the underlying cause was honest error or misconduct (15 articles, 11%). The largest proportion of notices was issued by the authors (47 articles, 35%). The majority of retractions were due to some form of misconduct (102 articles, 76%), that is, compromised peer review (44 articles, 33%), plagiarism (22 articles, 16%) and data falsification/fabrication (10 articles, 7%). Honest error accounted for 17 retractions (13%) of which 10 articles (7%) were published in error. The median number of days from publication to retraction was 337.5 days. . Conclusions The most common reason to retract was compromised peer review. However, the majority of these cases date to March 2015 and appear to be the result of a systematic attempt to manipulate peer review across several publishers. Retractions due to plagiarism account for the second largest category and may be reduced by screening manuscripts before publication although this is not guaranteed. Retractions due to problems with the data may be reduced by appropriate data sharing and deposition before publication. Adopting a checklist (linked to COPE guidelines) and templates for various classes of retraction notices would increase transparency of retraction notices in future. .

Moylan EC and Kowalczuk MK (2016) Why articles are retracted: a retrospective cross-sectional study of retraction notices at BioMed Central. BMJ Open 6(11) doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012047 Publisher (Open Access): http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/6/11/e012047.full

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Ranking major and minor research misbehaviors: results from a survey among participants of four World Conferences on Research Integrity (Papers: Lex M. Bouter, at al | 2016)

Abstract Background Codes of conduct mainly focus on research misconduct that takes the form of fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. However, at the aggregate level, lesser forms of research misbehavior may be more important due to their much higher prevalence. Little is known about what the most frequent... More

Abstract Background Codes of conduct mainly focus on research misconduct that takes the form of fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. However, at the aggregate level, lesser forms of research misbehavior may be more important due to their much higher prevalence. Little is known about what the most frequent research misbehaviors are and what their impact is if they occur. Methods A survey was conducted among 1353 attendees of international research integrity conferences. They were asked to score 60 research misbehaviors according to their views on and perceptions of the frequency of occurrence, preventability, impact on truth (validity), and impact on trust between scientists on 5-point scales. We expressed the aggregate level impact as the product of frequency scores and truth, trust and preventability scores, respectively. We ranked misbehaviors based on mean scores. Additionally, relevant demographic and professional background information was collected from participants. Results Response was 17% of those who were sent the invitational email and 33% of those who opened it. The rankings suggest that selective reporting, selective citing, and flaws in quality assurance and mentoring are viewed as the major problems of modern research. The “deadly sins” of fabrication and falsification ranked highest on the impact on truth but low to moderate on aggregate level impact on truth, due to their low estimated frequency. Plagiarism is thought to be common but to have little impact on truth although it ranked high on aggregate level impact on trust. Conclusions We designed a comprehensive list of 60 major and minor research misbehaviors. Our respondents were much more concerned over sloppy science than about scientific fraud (FFP). In the fostering of responsible conduct of research, we recommend to develop interventions that actively discourage the high ranking misbehaviors from our study. Keywords Research integrity, Responsible conduct of research, Questionable research practices, Sloppy science, Research misconduct Fabrication, Falsification, Plagiarism

Bouter LME, Tijdink J, Axelsen N, Martinson BC and Riet G (2016) Ranking major and minor research misbehaviors: results from a survey among participants of four World Conferences on Research Integrity. Research Integrity and Peer Review 1:17 DOI: 10.1186/s41073-016-0024-5 Publisher (Open Access): http://researchintegrityjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41073-016-0024-5

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Silence: Everyday Betrayals of Research Participants – PLOS Blogs (Hilda Bastian | December 2016)

Published/Released on December 22, 2016 | Posted by Admin on January 12, 2017 | Keywords: , , , ,

[colored_box]"Cancer patients at holistic centre are more likely to die" Headline, The Times, London, September 1990. . Many of them were watching the evening TV news on the BBC, with no idea of the blow... More

[colored_box]"Cancer patients at holistic centre are more likely to die" Headline, The Times, London, September 1990. . Many of them were watching the evening TV news on the BBC, with no idea of the blow that was about to hit. They were cancer patients at a center in Bristol, and participating in a study. The researchers had reported in the Lancet that the patients were 3 times as likely to have their cancer return, and twice as likely to die. There was a press release and a press conference – but no communication with the participants. Liz Hunt interviewed some of them: . Isla Bourke, one of the women in the study, remembers wandering around the BBC newsroom where she worked in a daze. “Everyone knew I had gone to Bristol, they were looking at me, wondering what I had done to myself. I felt so terrible”. . Vicky Harris, another of the study cases, was travelling home on the tube when she caught a glimpse of the headlines in someone’s evening newspaper. She learned that she was twice as likely to die of breast cancer just because she had been to Bristol. “I actually wondered whether I would make it home”, she recalled. .

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National and International Compliance Tools (Papers: Pamela Andanda, et al 2016)

Creating and enhancing TRUSTworthy, responsible and equitable partnerships in international research A report for TRUST

Executive Summary The main challenge in the governance of research at the global level is the existence of varying ethics review practices across... More

Creating and enhancing TRUSTworthy, responsible and equitable partnerships in international research A report for TRUST

Executive Summary The main challenge in the governance of research at the global level is the existence of varying ethics review practices across countries. While differences in approaches per se do not necessarily create a problem, such varying practices can lead to “ethics dumping”; the purposeful exploitation of third country research participants/resources, as well as exploitation based on insufficient ethics awareness. The TRUST project develops three tools to counter ethics dumping:

1. A Global Code of Conduct for North‐South Collaboration

2. A Fair Research Contracts Webtool, and

3. A Compliance and Ethics Follow‐up Tool.

This report provides the first step towards the Compliance and Ethics Follow‐up Tool. It was produced based on the following activities. The resource developed which covers the first two activities can be found on pages 18‐32, structured according to the Horizon 2020 ethics review template. An overview of self‐regulatory mechanisms operated by 13 pharmaceutical companies, as presented in their public sources, can be found on pages 33‐44. An overview of existing compliance tools can be found on pages 45‐54.

Andanda P, Wathuta J, Leisinger K and Schroeder D, a report for TRUST http://trust-project.eu/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/TRUST-664771-National-and-International-Compliance-Tools-Final.pdf

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Conceptualizing Fraudulent Studies as Viruses: New Models for Handling Retractions (Papers: Kathleen Montgomery & Amalya L. Oliver | 2016)

Abstract This paper addresses the growing problem of retractions in the scientific literature of publications that contain bad data (i.e., fabricated, falsified, or containing error), also called “false science.” While the problem is particularly acute in the biomedical literature because of the life-threatening implications when treatment... More

Abstract This paper addresses the growing problem of retractions in the scientific literature of publications that contain bad data (i.e., fabricated, falsified, or containing error), also called “false science.” While the problem is particularly acute in the biomedical literature because of the life-threatening implications when treatment recommendations and decisions are based on false science, it is relevant for any knowledge domain, including the social sciences, law, and education. Yet current practices for handling retractions are seen as inadequate. We use the metaphor of a virus to illustrate how such studies can spread and contaminate the knowledge system, when they continue to be treated as valid. We suggest drawing from public health models designed to prevent the spread of biological viruses and compare the strengths and weaknesses of the current governance model of professional self-regulation with a proposed public health governance model. The paper concludes by considering the value of adding a triple-helix model that brings industry into the university-state governance mechanisms and incorporates bibliometric capabilities needed for a holistic treatment of the retraction process. Keywords Knowledge management, Governance, False science, Bad data, Infection, Contact reporting, Retraction, Triple helix

Montgomery K & Oliver AL (2016) Conceptualizing Fraudulent Studies as Viruses: New Models for Handling Retractions. Minerva. doi:10.1007/s11024-016-9311-z Publisher: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11024-016-9311-z

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The risk of re-identification versus the need to identify individuals in rare disease research (Papers: Mats G Hansson, et al | 2016)

Abstract There is a growing concern in the ethics literature and among policy makers that de-identification or coding of personal data and biospecimens is not sufficient for protecting research subjects from privacy invasions and possible breaches of confidentiality due to the possibility of unauthorized re-identification. At... More

Abstract There is a growing concern in the ethics literature and among policy makers that de-identification or coding of personal data and biospecimens is not sufficient for protecting research subjects from privacy invasions and possible breaches of confidentiality due to the possibility of unauthorized re-identification. At the same time, there is a need in medical science to be able to identify individual patients. In particular for rare disease research there is a special and well-documented need for research collaboration so that data and biosamples from multiple independent studies can be shared across borders. In this article, we identify the needs and arguments related to de-identification and re-identification of patients and research subjects and suggest how the different needs may be balanced within a framework of using unique encrypted identifiers.

Hansson MG, Lochmüller H, Riess O, Schaefer F, Orth M, Rubinstein Y, Molster C, Dawkins H, Taruscio D, Posada M and Woods S (2016) The risk of re-identification versus the need to identify individuals in rare disease research. European Journal of Human Genetics 24, 1553–1558; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.52 Publisher (open access): http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v24/n11/full/ejhg201652a.html

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Generic Risks of Exporting Non-Ethical Practices

Executive Summary The potential to be exploited is part of the human condition. Even superheroes usually have an Achilles’ heel, or vulnerability. Take for instance, Superman, whose vulnerability is kryptonite. Exploiters take advantage of others’ vulnerabilities to promote their... More

Executive Summary The potential to be exploited is part of the human condition. Even superheroes usually have an Achilles’ heel, or vulnerability. Take for instance, Superman, whose vulnerability is kryptonite. Exploiters take advantage of others’ vulnerabilities to promote their own interests. Whilst there is a morally neutral sense of exploitation (the exploitation of natural talents to create art, for example), the term is generally used to describe a moral failing. Exploiting others is morally wrong. This report is about the risks for exploitation for defined entities, in other words, ‘Achilles’ heels’ in research. What makes exploitation more likely to occur due to vulnerabilities that can be exploited, either knowingly or unknowingly? After careful analysis of the relevant literature and case studies, as well as consultation withleading ethics committee chairs and representatives of vulnerable populations from low and middle income countries (LMICs), an exploitation risk table was produced. Risks were categorized according to the points at which vulnerability occurred, and were grouped according to four values which have to be present to avoid exploitation in North-South collaborations: fairness, respect, care and honesty. Trustworthiness is achieved when all four values are realized.

Kate Chatfield, Doris Schroeder, Klaus Leisinger, Jaci van Niekerk, Ngayo Munuo, Rachel Wynberg and Paul Woodgate (2016) Generic Risks of Exporting Non-Ethical Practices, a report for TRUST http://trust-project.eu/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/TRUST-Deliverable-Generic-Risks-Final-copy.pdf

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Is it becoming harder to secure reviewers for peer review? A test with data from five ecology journals (Papers: Arianne Y. K. Albert, et al | 2016)

Published/Released on November 04, 2016 | Posted by Admin on January 4, 2017 | Keywords: , , , ,

Abstract Background There is concern in the academic publishing community that it is becoming more difficult to secure reviews for peer-reviewed manuscripts, but much of this concern stems from anecdotal and rhetorical evidence. Methods We examined the proportion of review requests that led to a completed review over a... More

Abstract Background There is concern in the academic publishing community that it is becoming more difficult to secure reviews for peer-reviewed manuscripts, but much of this concern stems from anecdotal and rhetorical evidence. Methods We examined the proportion of review requests that led to a completed review over a 6-year period (2009–2015) in a mid-tier biology journal (Molecular Ecology). We also re-analyzed previously published data from four other mid-tier ecology journals (Functional Ecology, Journal of Ecology, Journal of Animal Ecology, and Journal of Applied Ecology), looking at the same proportion over the period 2003 to 2010. Results The data from Molecular Ecology showed no significant decrease through time in the proportion of requests that led to a review (proportion in 2009 = 0.47 (95 % CI = 0.43 to 0.52), proportion in 2015 = 0.44 (95 % CI = 0.40 to 0.48)). This proportion did decrease for three of the other ecology journals (changes in proportions from 2003 to 2010 = −0.10, −0.18, and −0.09), while the proportion for the fourth (Functional Ecology) stayed roughly constant (change in proportion = −0.04). Conclusions Overall, our data suggest that reviewer agreement rates have probably declined slightly but not to the extent suggested by the anecdotal and rhetorical evidence. Keywords Peer review Reviewers Academic journals

Albert A, Gow J, Cobra A, Vines T. (2016) Is it becoming harder to secure reviewers for peer review? A test with data from five ecology journals. Research Integrity and Peer Review, 1(14) DOI: 10.1186/s41073-016-0022-7 Publisher (Open access): http://researchintegrityjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41073-016-0022-7#Abs1 also available as a pdf

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Critical evaluation of the guidelines of the Finnish Advisory Board on Research Integrity and of their application (Papers: Liisa Räsänen and Erja Moore | 2016)

Abstract We have national guidelines for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) and procedures for handling allegations of misconduct in Finland. The guidelines have been formulated and updated by the Finnish Advisory Board on Research Integrity (TENK). In this article, we introduce and evaluate the national... More

Abstract We have national guidelines for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) and procedures for handling allegations of misconduct in Finland. The guidelines have been formulated and updated by the Finnish Advisory Board on Research Integrity (TENK). In this article, we introduce and evaluate the national RCR guidelines. We also present statistics of alleged and proven RCR violation cases and frequency of appeals to TENK on the decisions or procedures of the primary institutions. In addition, we analyze the available data on seven investigated cases in more detail. Positive aspects in the Finnish system are a fairly good infrastructure to investigate suspected RCR violations and a wide concept of RCR violations, which consists of fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, misappropriation, and other misbehaviors. However, the guidelines contain poorly elaborated definitions, do not treat the complainant and the suspect in an equal way, and need to be revised. Confusion about the concepts and criteria of the RCR violations seems to be common in primary institutions and among the complainants. Even if research institutions and universities have officially adhered to the national RCR guidelines, slipping from the guidelines occurs quite commonly. All these factors lead to frequent dissatisfaction with the decisions or procedures applied, high rate of appeals to TENK, and far from optimal functionality of the system. Keywords Research misconduct Guidelines on research integrity Finnish Advisory Board on Research Integrity TENK

Räsänen L and Moore E (2016) Critical evaluation of the guidelines of the Finnish Advisory Board on Research Integrity and of their application. Research Integrity and Peer Review 1(15) DOI: 10.1186/s41073-016-0020-9 Publisher (open access): http://researchintegrityjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41073-016-0020-9#Abs1 also available as a pdf

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We read spam a lot: prospective cohort study of unsolicited and unwanted academic invitations (Papers: Andrew Grey, et al | September 2016)

Published/Released on September 29, 2016 | Posted by Admin on December 23, 2016 | Keywords: , , ,

Abstract Objectives To assess the amount, relevance, content, and suppressibility of academic electronic spam invitations to attend conferences or submit manuscripts. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Email accounts of participating academics. Participants Five intrepid academics and a great many publishers, editors, and conference organisers. Intervention Unsubscribing from sender’s distribution lists. Main... More

Abstract Objectives To assess the amount, relevance, content, and suppressibility of academic electronic spam invitations to attend conferences or submit manuscripts. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Email accounts of participating academics. Participants Five intrepid academics and a great many publishers, editors, and conference organisers. Intervention Unsubscribing from sender’s distribution lists. Main outcome measures Number of spam invitations received before, immediately after, and one year after unsubscribing from senders’ distribution lists. The proportion of duplicate invitations was also assessed and the relevance of each invitation graded to the recipient’s research interests. A qualitative assessment of the content of spam invitations was conducted. Results At baseline, recipients received an average of 312 spam invitations each month. Unsubscribing reduced the frequency of the invitations by 39% after one month but by only 19% after one year. Overall, 16% of spam invitations were duplicates and 83% had little or no relevance to the recipients’ research interests. Spam invitations were characterised by inventive language, flattery, and exuberance, and they were sometimes baffling and amusing. Conclusions Academic spam is common, repetitive, often irrelevant, and difficult to avoid or prevent.

Grey A, Bolland MJ, Dalbeth N, Gamble G, Sadler L. (2016) We read spam a lot: prospective cohort study of unsolicited and unwanted academic invitations BMJ 2016; 355 Publisher (Open access): http://www.bmj.com/content/355/bmj.i5383

 Also read this lighthearted discussion piece about academic spam

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The high costs of getting ethical and site-specific approvals for multi-centre research (Papers: Adrian G. Barnett, et al | 2016)

Published/Released on December 07, 2016 | Posted by Admin on December 22, 2016 | Keywords: , , , , , , , , , ,

Abstract Background Multi-centre studies generally cost more than single-centre studies because of larger sample sizes and the need for multiple ethical approvals. Multi-centre studies include clinical trials, clinical quality registries, observational studies and implementation studies. We examined the costs of two large Australian multi-centre studies in obtaining... More

Abstract Background Multi-centre studies generally cost more than single-centre studies because of larger sample sizes and the need for multiple ethical approvals. Multi-centre studies include clinical trials, clinical quality registries, observational studies and implementation studies. We examined the costs of two large Australian multi-centre studies in obtaining ethical and site-specific approvals. Methods We collected data on staff time spent on approvals and expressed the overall cost as a percent of the total budget. Results The total costs of gaining approval were 38 % of the budget for a study of 50 centres (mean cost AUD $6960 per site) and 2 % for a study of 11 centres (mean cost AUD $2300 per site). Seventy-five and 90 % of time was spent on repeated tasks, respectively, and many time-consuming tasks, such as reformatting documents, did nothing to improve the study design or participant safety. Conclusions Improvements have been made to the ethical approval application system, but more gains could be made without increasing risks of harm to research participants. We propose that ethical review bodies and individual sites publish statistics on how long they take to process approvals which could then be nationally benchmarked. Keywords Research ethics Ethical review Multi-centre study Australia

Barnett A, Campbell M, Shield C, Farrington A, Hall L, Page K, Gardner A, Mitchell B, Graves N (2016) The high costs of getting ethical and site-specific approvals for multi-centre research. Research Integrity and Peer Review. 1(16) Publisher (Open Access): http://researchintegrityjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41073-016-0023-6#Abs1

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The Chrysalis Effect: How Ugly Initial Results Metamorphosize Into Beautiful Articles (Papers: Ernest Hugh O’Boyle Jr., et al 2014)

Published/Released on March 19, 2014 | Posted by Admin on December 21, 2016 | Keywords: , , , , , , , , ,

Abstract The issue of a published literature not representative of the population of research is most often discussed in terms of entire studies being suppressed. However, alternative sources of publication bias are questionable research practices (QRPs) that entail post hoc alterations of hypotheses to support data or post... More

Abstract The issue of a published literature not representative of the population of research is most often discussed in terms of entire studies being suppressed. However, alternative sources of publication bias are questionable research practices (QRPs) that entail post hoc alterations of hypotheses to support data or post hoc alterations of data to support hypotheses. Using general strain theory as an explanatory framework, we outline the means, motives, and opportunities for researchers to better their chances of publication independent of rigor and relevance. We then assess the frequency of QRPs in management research by tracking differences between dissertations and their resulting journal publications. Our primary finding is that from dissertation to journal article, the ratio of supported to unsupported hypotheses more than doubled (0.82 to 1.00 versus 1.94 to 1.00). The rise in predictive accuracy resulted from the dropping of statistically nonsignificant hypotheses, the addition of statistically significant hypotheses, the reversing of predicted direction of hypotheses, and alterations to data. We conclude with recommendations to help mitigate the problem of an unrepresentative literature that we label the “Chrysalis Effect.” Keywords: philosophy of science statistical methods ethics morality and moral behavior

O’Boyle EH, Banks GC, Gonzalez-Mulé E (2016) The Chrysalis Effect: How Ugly Initial Results Metamorphosize Into Beautiful Articles. Journal of Management.  Doi: 10.1177/0149206314527133 Publisher: http://jom.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/08/25/0149206314527133 Research Gate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260281783_The_Chrysalis_Effect_How...

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Caring for Data: Law, Professional Codes and the Negotiation of Confidentiality in Australian Criminological Research. Report for the Criminology Research Council (Australia) (Papers: Robert Chalmers and Mark Israel | 2005

Summary In this report, we offer guidance to criminologists attempting to navigate, and manage the impact of, laws that relate to the protection and disclosure of confidential and personal information that they gather in the course of their research. We start by providing examples of the impact... More

Summary In this report, we offer guidance to criminologists attempting to navigate, and manage the impact of, laws that relate to the protection and disclosure of confidential and personal information that they gather in the course of their research. We start by providing examples of the impact of relevant laws on the practice of criminologists to set this work in it proper context, and then provide a general overview of laws relating to issues such as privacy, confidentiality and compelled disclosure. Drawing on this background, Section Three provides brief responses to Frequently Asked Questions covering the ways researchers gather, store, use, disclose and reuse information. We conclude by examining possible future developments. Throughout the report we attempt to illustrate how the practice of criminological research practically intersects with relevant laws. This intersection can be painful as relevant laws are by no means tailored to suit the environment of such research. However, our aim is to help criminologists and their institutions reach better informed decisions about management of legal risks although, of course, this report is not a substitute for specific advice.

Chalmers, R & Israel, M (2005) Caring for Data: Law, Professional Codes and the Negotiation of Confidentiality in Australian Criminological Research. Report for the Criminology Research Council (Australia). 57 pages. http://crg.aic.gov.au/reports/200304-09.pdf

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Toward a New Era of Trust and Transparency in Clinical Trials (Papers: Kathy L. Hudson et al | October 2016)