ACN - 101321555 Australasian Human Research Ethics Consultancy Services Pty Ltd (AHRECS)

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Addressing research misconduct and detrimental research practices: current knowledge and issues (Books: NAP | 2017)

The integrity of knowledge that emerges from research is based on individual and collective adherence to core values of objectivity, honesty, openness, fairness, accountability, and stewardship. Integrity in science means that the organizations in which research is conducted encourage those involved to exemplify these values in every step of... More

The integrity of knowledge that emerges from research is based on individual and collective adherence to core values of objectivity, honesty, openness, fairness, accountability, and stewardship. Integrity in science means that the organizations in which research is conducted encourage those involved to exemplify these values in every step of the research process. Understanding the dynamics that support – or distort – practices that uphold the integrity of research by all participants ensures that the research enterprise advances knowledge. The 1992 report Responsible Science: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process evaluated issues related to scientific responsibility and the conduct of research. It provided a valuable service in describing and analyzing a very complicated set of issues, and has served as a crucial basis for thinking about research integrity for more than two decades. However, as experience has accumulated with various forms of research misconduct, detrimental research practices, and other forms of misconduct, as subsequent empirical research has revealed more about the nature of scientific misconduct, and because technological and social changes have altered the environment in which science is conducted, it is clear that the framework established more than two decades ago needs to be updated. Responsible Science served as a valuable benchmark to set the context for this most recent analysis and to help guide the committee’s thought process. Fostering Integrity in Research identifies best practices in research and recommends practical options for discouraging and addressing research misconduct and detrimental research practices.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Addressing research misconduct and detrimental research practices: current knowledge and issues. In:  Fostering Integrity of Research. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2017. Publisher: https://www.nap.edu/catalog/21896/fostering-integrity-in-research

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Optimizing the Nation’s Investment in Academic Research (Books: National Academies Press | 2016)

Research universities are critical contributors to our national research enterprise. They are the principal source of a world-class labor force and fundamental discoveries that enhance our lives and the lives of others around the world. These institutions help to create an educated citizenry capable of making informed and crucial... More

Research universities are critical contributors to our national research enterprise. They are the principal source of a world-class labor force and fundamental discoveries that enhance our lives and the lives of others around the world. These institutions help to create an educated citizenry capable of making informed and crucial choices as participants in a democratic society. However many are concerned that the unintended cumulative effect of federal regulations undercuts the productivity of the research enterprise and diminishes the return on the federal investment in research. Optimizing the Nation's Investment in Academic Research reviews the regulatory framework as it currently exists, considers specific regulations that have placed undue and often unanticipated burdens on the research enterprise, and reassesses the process by which these regulations are created, reviewed, and retired. This review is critical to strengthen the partnership between the federal government and research institutions, to maximize the creation of new knowledge and products, to provide for the effective training and education of the next generation of scholars and workers, and to optimize the return on the federal investment in research for the benefit of the American people.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Optimizing the Nation's Investment in Academic Research: A New Regulatory Framework for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/21824. Publisher: https://www.nap.edu/catalog/21824/optimizing-the-nations-investment-in-academic-research-a-new-regulatory

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The black, the white and the grey areas – towards an international and interdisciplinary definition of scientific misconduct (Books: Daniele Fanelli | 2011)

Published/Released on October 31, 2011 | Posted by Admin on April 25, 2017 | Keywords: , , , , ,

"A global consensus on what constitutes good and bad research practice would seem easy to achieve — after all, if the laws of nature do not change across nations or fields of research, why should the criteria to investigate them change? In practice, however, this objective has proven to... More

"A global consensus on what constitutes good and bad research practice would seem easy to achieve — after all, if the laws of nature do not change across nations or fields of research, why should the criteria to investigate them change? In practice, however, this objective has proven to be elusive and complex. The definition of research misconduct, in particular, has been the subject of heated debates and frequent revisions in most countries that have adopted one. Reflecting on such debates, some scholars have doubted whether an agreement on such matter is at all possible, and worth the effort [1]; others, however, have simply proposed new approaches to overcome the obstacles [2, 3]. Although scepticism is sometimes expressed even in international reports (e.g. [4]), all recent global initiatives, including this Second World Conference on Research Integrity, call for at least an harmonisation of principles and/or for agreements between international collaborators at the start of each research project, [5–7]."

Fanelli D (2011) The black, the white and the grey areas - towards an international and interdisciplinary definition of scientific misconduct. Pp. 77-87 in: Nick Steneck & Tony Meyer eds. Promoting Research Integrity on a Global Basis.

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Scholarly Misconduct (Books: Professor Ian Freckelton QC 2016)

Description: Professional misconduct within the academic community is highly publicised. Retractions of falsified research have reached record levels and allegations of fraud and misconduct by scholars generate high-profile investigations and sometimes professional disgrace. Such cases frequently reach the courts, with tribunals determining whether research fraud, plagiarism, sexual misconduct, defamation, discrimination,... More

Description: Professional misconduct within the academic community is highly publicised. Retractions of falsified research have reached record levels and allegations of fraud and misconduct by scholars generate high-profile investigations and sometimes professional disgrace. Such cases frequently reach the courts, with tribunals determining whether research fraud, plagiarism, sexual misconduct, defamation, discrimination, forensic impropriety, thefts, and other forms of improper behaviour have been committed. With claims including patient deaths, miscarriages of justice, and exploitation of funding agencies, the legal, reputational, and financial stakes for the individuals and institutions concerned are extremely high. Scholarly Misconduct: Law, Practice, and Regulation is the first text of its kind to scrutinize the topic of academic integrity through a legal lens and across disciplines. Freckelton chronicles and analyses case law from around the globe, looking specifically at the legal and regulatory responses that were generated. The work also assesses the current policies and practices of academic and research institutions and government agencies worldwide. Finally, it reflects on the measures that need to be undertaken to reclaim and promote scholarly integrity and to institute rigorous, fair, and clear processes to establish whether scholars have indeed engaged in misconduct.

Freckelton I (2016) Scholarly Misconduct: Law, Regulation and Practice.  Oxford University Press https://global.oup.com/academic/product/scholarly-misconduct-9780198755401?cc=au&lang=en&

Link to Ian Freckelton's appearance on Ockham's Razor

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Handbook of Academic Integrity (Books: Tracey Bretag ed 2015)

"The book brings together diverse views from around the world and provides a comprehensive overview of the subject, beginning with different definitions of academic integrity through how to create the ethical academy. At the same time, the Handbook does not shy away from some of the vigorous debates in... More

"The book brings together diverse views from around the world and provides a comprehensive overview of the subject, beginning with different definitions of academic integrity through how to create the ethical academy. At the same time, the Handbook does not shy away from some of the vigorous debates in the field such as the causes of academic integrity breaches. There has been an explosion of interest in academic integrity in the last 10-20 years. New technologies that have made it easier than ever for students to ‘cut and paste’, coupled with global media scandals of high profile researchers behaving badly, have resulted in the perception that plagiarism is ‘on the rise’. This, in combination with the massification and commercialisation of higher education, has resulted in a burgeoning interest in the importance of academic integrity, how to safeguard it and how to address breaches appropriately. What may have seemed like a relatively easy topic to address – students copying sources without attribution – has in fact, turned out to be a very complex, interdisciplinary field of research requiring contributions from linguists, psychologists, social scientists, anthropologists, teaching and learning specialists, mathematicians, accountants, medical doctors, lawyers and philosophers, to name just a few. Despite or perhaps because of this broad interest and input, there has been no single authoritative reference work which brings together the vast, growing, interdisciplinary and at times contradictory body of literature. For both established researchers/practitioners and those new to the field, this Handbook provides a one-stop-shop as well as a launching pad for new explorations and discussions."

Bretag, T (Ed.) (2016) In  Handbook of Academic Integrity. Springer. ISBN 978-981-287-097-1 Publisher: http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9789812870971

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When misconduct strikes: A fictional tale (Author interview by Retraction Watch)

Published/Released on March 05, 2016 | Posted by Admin on March 6, 2016 | Keywords: , , , , , , ,

"Pernille Rørth is not your typical novelist. She was a scientist for 25 years and was also editor-in-chief of the EMBO Journal for five years. But now, she’s written a novel – Raw Data – about an incident of misconduct that forces a top lab in Boston to retract... More

"Pernille Rørth is not your typical novelist. She was a scientist for 25 years and was also editor-in-chief of the EMBO Journal for five years. But now, she’s written a novel – Raw Data – about an incident of misconduct that forces a top lab in Boston to retract a prominent Nature paper. The novel exposes how scientists – even the most well-intentioned – can crack under the intense pressure of such a career-killing event. (There’s even a twist at the end.) We spoke to Rørth about her novel, and what she wants it to achieve."

Read the Retraction Watch interview

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Academic Integrity in China (Books: Chen and Macfarlane 2015)

Abstract: The chapter will explo... More

Abstract: The chapter will explore academic integrity in relation to the research (mis)conduct of academic faculty in universities in China (excluding Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan). The academic profession in China is state sponsored rather than autonomous and has one of the lowest basic salary levels internationally. The rapid growth of higher education in China, allied with performative pressures in the ranking race, has led to increasing concerns about research integrity focused mainly on the conventional misconduct categories of falsification, fabrication, and plagiarism. However, research integrity in China also needs to be understood by reference to cultural norms, including the building of relationships and courtesy toward and respect for authority. Norms based on a Western conceptualization of research integrity do little to challenge or alter practices associated with guanxi and the intensive norms of reciprocity which dominate academic life in China. Weak professional self-regulation and poor academic socialization have also contributed to the current problematic situation of academic integrity in China.

Chen, S. & Macfarlane, B. (2015) Academic Integrity in China, IN Bretag, T. (ed.) Handbook of Academic Integrity, Springer, Dordrecht, forthcoming http://www.springer.com/br/book/9789812870971 ResearchGate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283716738_Academic_Integrity_in_China

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Conflict of Interest in the Professions (Book: Michael Davis (Editor) & Andrew Stark (Editor) 2001)

Published/Released on November 01, 2001 | Posted by Admin on May 31, 2015 | Keywords: , , ,

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