“A global consensus on what constitutes good and bad research practice would seem easy to achieve — after all, if the laws of nature do not change across nations or fields of research, why should the criteria to investigate them change? In practice, however, this objective has proven to be elusive and complex. The definition of research misconduct, in particular, has been the subject of heated debates and frequent revisions in most countries that have adopted one. Reflecting on such debates, some scholars have doubted whether an agreement on such matter is at all possible, and worth the effort ; others, however, have simply proposed new approaches to overcome the obstacles [2, 3]. Although scepticism is sometimes expressed even in international reports (e.g. ), all recent global initiatives, including this Second World Conference on Research Integrity, call for at least an harmonisation of principles and/or for agreements between international collaborators at the start of each research project, [5–7].”
Fanelli D (2011) The black, the white and the grey areas – towards an international and interdisciplinary definition of scientific misconduct. Pp. 77-87 in: Nick Steneck & Tony Meyer eds. Promoting Research Integrity on a Global Basis.