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Australasian Human Research Ethics Consultancy Services Pty Ltd (AHRECS)

Perspectives on Big Data, Ethics, and Society – White Paper (Resource material: Council for Big Data, Ethics, and Society 2016)0

Posted by Admin in on May 29, 2016
 

“The Council for Big Data, Ethics, and Society has released a comprehensive white paper consolidating conversations and ideas from two years of meetings and discussions:

Perspectives on Big Data, Ethics, and Society

Today’s release marks a major milestone for the Council, which began in 2014 with support from the National Science Foundation and the goal of providing critical social and cultural perspectives on “big data” research initiatives. The work of the Council consistently surfaced conflicts between big data research methods and existing norms. Should big data methods be exempted from those norms? pushed into them? Are entirely new paradigms needed? The white paper provides recommendations in the areas of policy, pedagogy, and network building, as well as identifying crucial areas for further research. From the Executive Summary:

The Council’s findings, outputs, and recommendations—including those described in this white paper as well as those in earlier reports—address concrete manifestations of these disjunctions between big data research methods and existing research ethics paradigms. We have identified policy changes that would encourage greater engagement and reflection on ethics topics. We have indicated a number of pedagogical needs for data science instructors, and endeavored to fulfill some of them. We have also explored cultural and institutional barriers to collaboration between ethicists, social scientists, and data scientists in academia and industry around ethics challenges. Overall, our recommendations are geared toward those who are invested in a future for data science, big data analytics, and artificial intelligence guided by ethical considerations along with technical merit.

In addition to the Perspectives on Big Data, Ethics, and Society white paper, the Council’s website provides access to research literature, case studies,* meeting minutes, membership, and output such as a Letter on Proposed Changes to the Common Rule.

Feedback is welcome at bdes at data society dot net.”

Case Study Non-Mandatory Ethics Bodies at Austrian Universities (Papers: Erich Griessler 2015)0

Posted by Admin in on May 28, 2016
 

Abstract: This case study analyses all together nine non-mandatory organizations and sub-units of the Austrian university landscape that deal with questions of research ethics or – some of them, more broadly – with ethical questions of research. The paper studies these organizations’ tasks, organizational set-ups, modes of operation and the extent to which they are doing well in terms of “managing contestation” and “responsibilisation” of research. Moreover, the paper looks into factors that promote and inhibit their work.

The case study is based on document analysis (see Annex) and nine interviews with chairpersons or senior employees of ethics bodies. The interviews were conducted between April and June 2014; eight of them face to face at people’s workplaces and one via telephone. The interviews lasted between 60 and 90 minutes, were fully transcribed, paraphrased and analysed by thematic analysis. The sample includes six comprehensive and one technical university; one university specialized in veterinary medicine and one university specialized in agriculture and life sciences. It comprises different institutional responses to address the question of ethics in research and innovation. In five cases these universities established ethics commissions, other institutions are called “ethics platform”, “agency for scientific integrity”, “university commission for scientific integrity and ethics” and “advisory board for ethical questions in scientific research”. With the exception of one organization, which is a joint establishment of several member organizations comprising university and non-university research organizations, all other bodies are located within the university. This study concerns basic and applied research by Austrian publicly funded universities. However, it also touches upon issues of contract research from industry and the public sector which is carried out at public universities.

Griessler E (2015) Case Study Non-Mandatory Ethics Bodies at Austrian Universities. ResAGorA
Publisher (Open access): http://irihs.ihs.ac.at/3686/1/IHS%20-%20Griessler_non%20mandatory%20ethics%20body_final.pdf
This paper will be presented at the 4S/EASST conference, Barcelona August 31-September 3 2016

Overview on health research ethics in Egypt and North Africa (Papers: Diaa Marzouk 2014)0

Posted by Admin in on May 27, 2016
 

Abstract: Developing countries, including Egypt and North African countries, need to improve their quality of research by enhancing international cooperation and exchanges of scientific information, as well as competing for obtaining international funds to support research activities. Research must comply with laws and other requirements for research that involves human subjects. The purpose of this article is to overview the status of health research ethics in Egypt and North African countries, with reference to other Middle Eastern countries. The EU and North African Migrants: Health and Health Systems project (EUNAM) has supported the revision of the status of health research ethics in Egypt and North African countries, by holding meetings and discussions to collect information about research ethics committees in Egypt, and revising the structure and guidelines of the committees, as well as reviewing the literature concerning ethics activities in the concerned countries. This overview has revealed that noticeable efforts have been made to regulate research ethics in certain countries in the Middle East. This can be seen in the new regulations, which contain the majority of protections mentioned in the international guidelines related to research ethics. For most of the internationally registered research ethics committees in North African countries, the composition and functionality reflect the international guidelines. There is growing awareness of research ethics in these countries, which extends to teaching efforts to undergraduate and postgraduate medical students.

Marzouk D, Abd El Aa W, Saleh A, Sleem H, Khyatti M, Mazini L, Hemminki K, Anwar WA (2014) Overview on health research ethics in Egypt and North Africa. European Journal of Public Health. Vol. 24, Supplement 1, 87–91. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/cku110.
Publisher (Open Access): http://eurpub.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/suppl_1/87.long

A bibliometric analysis of privacy and ethics in IEEE Security and Privacy (Papers: Jonathan Tse et al 2015)0

Posted by Admin in on May 24, 2016
 

Abstract: The increasingly ubiquitous use of technology has led to the concomitant rise of intensified data collection and the ethical issues associated with the privacy and security of that data. In order to address the question of how these ethical concerns are discussed in the literature surrounding the subject, we examined articles published in IEEE Security and Privacy, a magazine targeted towards a general, technically-oriented readership spanning both academia and industry. Our investigation of the intersection between the ethical and technological dimensions of privacy and security is structured as a bibliometric analysis. Our dataset covers all articles published in IEEE Security and Privacy since its inception in 2003 to February 06, 2014 . This venue was chosen not only because of its target readership, but also because a preliminary search of keywords related to ethics, privacy, and security topics in the ISI Web of Knowledge and IEEE Xplore indicated that IEEE Security and Privacy has published a preponderance of articles matching those topics. In fact, our search returned two-fold more articles for IEEE Security and Privacy than the next most prolific venue. These reasons, coupled with the fact that both academia and industry are well-represented in the authorship of articles makes IEEE Security and Privacy an excellent candidate for bibliometric analysis. Our analysis examines the ways articles in IEEE Security and Privacy relate ethics to information technology. Such articles can influence the development of law, policy and the future of information technology ethics. We employed thematic and JK-biplot analyses of content relating privacy and ethics and found eight dominant themes as well as the inter-theme relationships. Authors and institutional affiliations were examined to discern whether centers of research activity and/or authors dominated the overall field or thematic areas. Results suggest avenues for future work in critical areas, especially for closing present gaps in the coverage of ethics and information technology privacy and security themes particularly in the areas of ethics and privacy awareness.

Keywords: Ethics Privacy Education

Tse J, Schrader DE,  Ghosh D, Liao T, Lundie D (2015) A bibliometric analysis of privacy and ethics in IEEE Security and Privacy. Ethics and Information Technology. 17(2) pp 153-163
Publisher: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10676-015-9369-6

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