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Australasian Human Research Ethics Consultancy Services Pty Ltd (AHRECS)

Ethical considerations in naming authors of scientific papers (Papers: Sepideh Mohammadi and Tajmohammad Arazi 2015)0

Posted by Admin in on June 1, 2016
 

Abstract: Nowadays academic life is closely related to the issue of publication. Consequently, there are numerous challenges in naming authors of scientific papers and publication ethics in general, making it essential to identify the various problems in this area. The present article acquires a historical view to investigate the challenges and solutions related to this topic. This is a review article based on a search of scientific databases from 1985 to 2014. Honorary authorship, coercion authorship, ghost authorship and non-compliance are instances of ethical issues in naming authors. To solve these problems, several agencies have provided ethical guidelines in this respect including the International Council of Medical Journals Editors (ICMJE), contributorship, objective measurement tools and the National Directory of Ethics in Medical Research Publications. Nevertheless, studies point to the existence of problems in this area.In order to solve the existing issues, the evaluation system of scientific and research organizations should propel quantity-oriented evaluation over quality oriented criteria. We also believe that the educational system, specifically in the post graduate period, can affect scientific research and publication ethics to a great extent and thus promote ethical conduct in students and researchers.

Keywords: authorship, publication misconduct, publication ethics,

Sepideh M, Tajmohammad A (2015) Ethical considerations in naming authors of scientific papers. Iranian Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine. 7(5):50-60
Publisher (Open access): http://ijme.tums.ac.ir/article-1-5465-en.html 

 

Understanding Health Research Ethics in Nepal (Papers: Jeevan Sharma et al 2016)0

Posted by Admin in on May 31, 2016
 

Abstract: Unlike other countries in South Asia, in Nepal research in the health sector has a relatively recent history. Most health research activities in the country are sponsored by international collaborative assemblages of aid agencies and universities. Data from Nepal Health Research Council shows that, officially, 1,212 health research activities have been carried out between 1991 and 2014. These range from addressing immediate health problems at the country level through operational research, to evaluations and programmatic interventions that are aimed at generating evidence, to more systematic research activities that inform global scientific and policy debates. Established in 1991, the Ethical Review Board of the Nepal Health Research Council (NHRC) is the central body that has the formal regulating authority of all the health research activities in country, granted through an act of parliament. Based on research conducted between 2010 and 2013, and a workshop on research ethics that the authors conducted in July 2012 in Nepal as a part of the on-going research, this article highlights the emerging regulatory and ethical fields in this low-income country that has witnessed these increased health research activities. Issues arising reflect this particular political economy of research (what constitutes health research, where resources come from, who defines the research agenda, culture of contract research, costs of review, developing Nepal’s research capacity, through to the politics of publication of data/findings) and includes questions to emerging regulatory and ethical frameworks.

KEYWORDS: bioethics; developing world; global South; research ethics

Sharma JR, Khatri R and Harper I (2016) Understanding Health Research Ethics in Nepal. Developing World Bioethics. doi: 10.1111/dewb.12109. [Epub ahead of print] Publisher: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/dewb.12109/abstract

Case Study Non-Mandatory Ethics Bodies at Austrian Universities (Papers: Erich Griessler 2015)0

Posted by Admin in on May 28, 2016
 

Abstract: This case study analyses all together nine non-mandatory organizations and sub-units of the Austrian university landscape that deal with questions of research ethics or – some of them, more broadly – with ethical questions of research. The paper studies these organizations’ tasks, organizational set-ups, modes of operation and the extent to which they are doing well in terms of “managing contestation” and “responsibilisation” of research. Moreover, the paper looks into factors that promote and inhibit their work.

The case study is based on document analysis (see Annex) and nine interviews with chairpersons or senior employees of ethics bodies. The interviews were conducted between April and June 2014; eight of them face to face at people’s workplaces and one via telephone. The interviews lasted between 60 and 90 minutes, were fully transcribed, paraphrased and analysed by thematic analysis. The sample includes six comprehensive and one technical university; one university specialized in veterinary medicine and one university specialized in agriculture and life sciences. It comprises different institutional responses to address the question of ethics in research and innovation. In five cases these universities established ethics commissions, other institutions are called “ethics platform”, “agency for scientific integrity”, “university commission for scientific integrity and ethics” and “advisory board for ethical questions in scientific research”. With the exception of one organization, which is a joint establishment of several member organizations comprising university and non-university research organizations, all other bodies are located within the university. This study concerns basic and applied research by Austrian publicly funded universities. However, it also touches upon issues of contract research from industry and the public sector which is carried out at public universities.

Griessler E (2015) Case Study Non-Mandatory Ethics Bodies at Austrian Universities. ResAGorA
Publisher (Open access): http://irihs.ihs.ac.at/3686/1/IHS%20-%20Griessler_non%20mandatory%20ethics%20body_final.pdf
This paper will be presented at the 4S/EASST conference, Barcelona August 31-September 3 2016

Overview on health research ethics in Egypt and North Africa (Papers: Diaa Marzouk 2014)0

Posted by Admin in on May 27, 2016
 

Abstract: Developing countries, including Egypt and North African countries, need to improve their quality of research by enhancing international cooperation and exchanges of scientific information, as well as competing for obtaining international funds to support research activities. Research must comply with laws and other requirements for research that involves human subjects. The purpose of this article is to overview the status of health research ethics in Egypt and North African countries, with reference to other Middle Eastern countries. The EU and North African Migrants: Health and Health Systems project (EUNAM) has supported the revision of the status of health research ethics in Egypt and North African countries, by holding meetings and discussions to collect information about research ethics committees in Egypt, and revising the structure and guidelines of the committees, as well as reviewing the literature concerning ethics activities in the concerned countries. This overview has revealed that noticeable efforts have been made to regulate research ethics in certain countries in the Middle East. This can be seen in the new regulations, which contain the majority of protections mentioned in the international guidelines related to research ethics. For most of the internationally registered research ethics committees in North African countries, the composition and functionality reflect the international guidelines. There is growing awareness of research ethics in these countries, which extends to teaching efforts to undergraduate and postgraduate medical students.

Marzouk D, Abd El Aa W, Saleh A, Sleem H, Khyatti M, Mazini L, Hemminki K, Anwar WA (2014) Overview on health research ethics in Egypt and North Africa. European Journal of Public Health. Vol. 24, Supplement 1, 87–91. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/cku110.
Publisher (Open Access): http://eurpub.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/suppl_1/87.long

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