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Journals retract more than a dozen studies from China that may have used executed prisoners’ organs – Retraction Watch (Ivan Oransky | August 2017)0

Posted by Admin in on August 15, 2019
 

In the past month, PLOS ONE and Transplantation have retracted fifteen studies by authors in China because of suspicions that the authors may have used organs from executed prisoners.

All of the original studies — seven in Transplantation, and eight in PLOS ONE — were published between 2008 and 2014. Two involved kidney transplants, and the rest involved liver transplants. Two other journals, the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology and Kidney International, have recently issued expressions of concern for the same reason.

In an editorial explaining the seven retractions from its journal, the editors of Transplantation write:

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Using ASCO’s Clinical Database for Commercial Research Raises Questions, Ethicists Say – Medscape (Ellie Kincaid | May 2019)0

Posted by Admin in on August 8, 2019
 

Eleven abstracts of the thousands accepted for publication at this year’s annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), one of the largest cancer research conferences in the world, draw upon data collected through a nonprofit subsidiary of ASCO that in 4 years has brought together the electronic health records (EHRs) of 1.2 million patients.

The ASCO subsidiary — CancerLinQ — will have its own 1200 square foot booth in prime real estate at the entrance to the meeting’s exhibit hall. It has received data from 48 healthcare institutions to help them improve care for patients and has compiled a treasure trove of data for researchers studying how expensive cancer drugs work for patients in the real world. But ethicists are concerned that CancerLinQ is allowing companies to sell access to the data after they have been stripped of patient identifiers, without asking for patients’ permission.

“I think that the ethics of profiting off of someone else’s information is dicey and at the very least the patient should go in with their eyes open, and that requires informing them,” said Robert Field, PhD, MPH, JD, a professor of law and public health at Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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Participants’ Understanding of Informed Consent for Biobanking: A Systematic Review (Papers: Elizabeth R. Eisenhauer, et al | 2017)0

Posted by Admin in on August 7, 2019
 

Abstract
Nurses are increasingly asked to obtain consent from participants for biobanking studies. Biobanking has added unique complexities to informed consent. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate participants’ level of understanding of the information presented during the informed consent process unique to the donation of biological specimens for research. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were utilized to conduct the review. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest bibliographic databases were searched. Results indicated that elements of informed consent unique to biobanking were poorly understood. Most studies had authors or funding associated with a biobank. Only one study disclosed and assessed participants’ understanding of moral risks. Increased disclosures, values-clarification, and presenting information via multiple modalities may facilitate understanding. There is a need to improve the quality of informed consent for biobanking studies by utilizing standardized instruments, definitions, and encouraging research about informed choice outside the biobanking industry.

Keywords
biological specimen banks, biobanking, informed consent, moral risks, understanding

Eisenhauer, E. R., Tait, A. R., Rieh, S., Y. & Arslanian-Engoren, C., M. (2017) Participants’ understanding of informed consent for biobanking: a systematic review. Clinical Nursing Research. 28(1) pp30-51
Publisher: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1054773817722690

Incorporating Exclusion Clauses into Informed Consent for Biobanking (Papers: Zubin Master and David B. Resnik)0

Posted by Admin in on August 7, 2019
 

Determining how best to obtain valid consent for the use of human biological samples collected for research is a challenging issue for investigators, sponsors, and institutional review boards (IRBs) because the goals of maximizing participants’ autonomous decisionmaking and advancing scientific research may conflict. Some participants want control over their samples to avoid research projects that they find morally objectionable. In this article, we argue that the use of exclusion clauses in informed consent can minimize risks to participants and social groups and promote accountability and trust without significantly deterring research.

Exclusion clauses are written statements used during informed consent to (1) exclude the use of biological samples and personal health information for certain types of research and (2) limit sharing of biological samples and personal health information with specific researchers, biobanks, or organizations—for example, investigators working on certain types of research projects, insurance companies, government or law enforcement agencies, advocacy organizations, and private companies, that is, employers. Exclusion clauses are meant to capture contentious research that could risk discrimination or stigmatization of individuals or groups and sharing with organizations the public perceives as less trustworthy. Exclusion clauses are statements included in consent forms by the researchers on areas of contentious research in which they will not take part in the future and organizations they are unlikely to share with. Although exclusion clauses may limit unrestricted use and global sharing, they can be useful for smaller biobanks with specific purposes.

Biobanking and Informed Consent
Biobanking involves the collection of human biological materials and health information that are used for a current study and stored for future research. Samples can be tested to detect the presence of cell types, proteins, metabolites, antibodies, DNA sequences, and other biomarkers in a given population.1 With the accompanying health information of participants, investigators can analyze data derived from biological samples (such as genomic information), as well as other types of data (such as demographic and health information), to discover statistical relationships between various factors and diseases and patterns of heritability within families and populations. Sharing of biological samples is important for promoting scientific progress, because investigators can take advantage of one another’s labor and resources and can access diverse populations and include more samples in their studies. Sometimes, samples come from populations where individuals are thought to have unique genetic predispositions or environmental exposures.

MASTER, Z., & RESNIK, D. (2013). Incorporating Exclusion Clauses into Informed Consent for Biobanking. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 22(2), 203-212. doi:10.1017/S0963180112000576
Publisher: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/cambridge-quarterly-of-healthcare-ethics/article/incorporating-exclusion-clauses-into-informed-consent-for-biobanking/B73A45B1050893729219B0076EFF4D67

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