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Forced Migration Review – Issue 61 (Papers: Marion Couldrey and Jenny Peebles Editors | June 2019)0

Posted by Admin in on July 2, 2019
 

the ETHICS issue
exploring ethical questions that confront us in our work

We each live according to our own personal code of ethics but what moral principles guide our work? The 19 feature theme articles in this issue debate many of the ethical questions that confront us in programming, research, safeguarding and volunteering, and in our use of data, new technologies, messaging and images. Prepare to be enlightened, unsettled and challenged. This issue is being published in tribute to Barbara Harrell-Bond, founder of the Refugee Studies Centre and FMR, who died in July 2018.

Forced Migration Review issue 61 www.fmreview.org/ethics
PDF copy of this edition

Contents

  • 4 Big data, little ethics: confidentiality and consent Nicole Behnam and Kristy Crabtree
  • 7 New technologies in migration: human rights impacts Petra Molnar
  • 9 Social media screening: Norway’s asylum system Jan-Paul Brekke and Anne Balke Staver
  • 12 Developing ethical guidelines for research Christina Clark-Kazak
  • 15 ‘Over-researched’ and ‘under-researched’ refugees Naohiko Omata
  • 18 Research fatigue among Rwandan refugees in Uganda Cleophas Karooma
  • 20 Over-researching migration ‘hotspots’? Ethical issues from the Carteret Islands Johannes M Lutz
  • 23 Ethics and accountability in researching sexual violence against men and boys Sarah Chynoweth and Sarah Martin
  • 26 Ethics and consent in settlement service delivery Carla Nayton and Sally Baker
  • 28 Ethical primary research by humanitarian actors Prisca Benelli and Tamara Low
  • 30 EU migration strategy: compromising principled humanitarian action Anaïs Faure Atger
  • 33 A humanitarian approach to travel medicine? Marta Aleksandra Balinska
  • 36 Principled humanitarian assistance and non-State armed groups Ruta Nimkar, Viren Falcao, Matthew Tebbutt and Emily Savage
  • 39 Ethical dilemmas posed by unethical behaviour by persons of concern Anna Turus
  • 41 Ethical quandaries in volunteering Ashley Witcher
  • 44 The ethical use of images and messaging Dualta Roughneen
  • 47 Representing refugees in advocacy campaigns Natalie Slade
  • 49 Putting safeguarding commitments into practice Agnes Olusese and Catherine Hingley
  • 52 Safeguarding in conflict and crisis Sarah Blakemore and Rosa Freedman Tribute to Barbara Harrell-Bond
  • 55 A Life Not Ordinary: our colleague Barbara Harrell-Bond Matthew Gibney, Dawn Chatty and Roger Zetter
  • 56 A lifelong commitment to justice HRH Prince El Hassan bin Talal of Jordan
  • 58 A refugee-centred perspective Anita H Fábos
  • 60 Building expert witness reports: Barbara’s legacy Maja Grundler
  • 62 The helpfulness of Imposing Aid: a tribute from the Refugee Law Project Chris Dolan
  • 65 Barbara’s ethics of antagonism Joshua Craze
  • 67 AMERA: delivering a refugee-centred approach to protection Sarah Elliott and Megan Denise Smith
  • 69 From a critique of camps to better forms of aid Alyoscia D’Onofrio
  • 72 Resist injustice Olivier Rukundo

Thinking about ethics in Burma research (Papers: Lisa Brooten & Rosalie Metro | 2014)0

Posted by Admin in on May 28, 2019
 

Burma’s colonial past, its years under military dictatorship, its ongoing ethnic and religious conflicts, and the current shifts in the political landscape all present unique challenges for researchers seeking to behave ethically with their informants, their institutions, each other, and the public sphere. The recent upsurge of interest in Burma presents an opportunity for scholars who study the country to reflect on the ethical dilemmas they have confronted and to articulate how they have addressed them. It is our hope that this effort can help those who specialize in Burma to consider the norms and divergences that exist within our inter-disciplinary scholarly community, and can aid those new to Burma Studies in navigating their research in a more informed manner. In light of the need for such a conversation, The Journal of Burma Studies agreed to publish this special issue.

For some human research designs, (sub)disciplines and methodologies matter.  Contextual factors, privacy and risk, as well as potential vulnerabilities can be entirely different and a peril for unprepared.   This thought-provoking paper is a discussion about ethical research in  Burma. We have included links to four other items about research in dangerous contexts.

The inspiration for this issue came from a panel discussion Rose organized at the 2012 Burma Studies Conference in DeKalb, Illinois, USA. Elliott Prasse-Freeman and Patrick McCormick both presented earlier versions of the essays included here, and Rose described her difficulties with using consent forms in her ethnographic research with teachers on the Thai-Burma border (Metro 2014). The audience members, who represented a broad cross-section of the field, raised a number of important issues that bear further exploration, and several tensions emerged that are echoed in these pages. In particular, a debate on the nature of objectivity between a senior and a mid-career scholar, both anthropologists, pointed to a generational paradigm shift toward an engagement with [End Page 1] the inevitably political nature of Burma Studies. Another exchange, between McCormick, a US researcher based in Burma, and a Burmese person based in the US, highlighted what McCormick calls the “hierarchies of interpretation” in which the academic credentials and positionality of local and international scholars privilege some epistemologies over others. Additionally, several scholars brought up concerns with the consequences of conducting and publishing their research, whether that meant jeopardizing local contacts or having their work appropriated to ends they did not support. These discussions were thought provoking, despite the brevity, and when we found ourselves talking after the conference about the need for more discussion, we decided to continue the conversation in these pages
.

Brooten, L. and Metro, R., (2014). Thinking about ethics in Burma research. Journal of Burma Studies, 18(1), pp.1-22.
Publisher: https://muse.jhu.edu/article/545023/pdf

Aboriginal genome analysis comes to grips with ethics – Nature (Ewen Callaway | September 2011)0

Posted by Admin in on May 12, 2019
 

Sequencing effort provides a model for future studies of museum samples.

En route from Sydney to Perth, Australia, in the early 1920s, British ethnologist Alfred Cort Haddon acquired a tuft of human hair from a young Aboriginal man. He added it to his sizeable collection of hair from people living around the world.

Ninety years later, those locks have yielded the first complete genome sequence of an Aboriginal Australian, and provided clues about the timing of human migrations from Africa to Asia1 (see ‘Early human explorers charted a bold course’). The work has also underscored the bioethical dilemmas involved in plumbing the genomes of indigenous populations — especially when the DNA comes from an archived specimen such as Haddon’s. “To be sequencing DNA from the hair of a deceased indigenous person is uncharted ethical territory,” says Emma Kowal, a cultural anthropologist at the University of Melbourne.

The genome project, led by Eske Willerslev at the University of Copenhagen, received approval for the work from a group that represents Aboriginals in the region in which the man probably lived. But some scientists are jittery about how others in the Aboriginal community might receive the project, and worry that it could set back efforts to engage Aboriginals in genetic research. “In a sense, every Aboriginal Australian has had something about themselves revealed to the world without their consent,” says Hank Greely, who directs the Center for Law and the Biosciences at Stanford University in California.

Read the rest of this discussion piece

The picture talk project: Aboriginal community input on consent for research (Papers: Emily FM Fitzpatrick, et al | 2019)0

Posted by Admin in on February 3, 2019
 

Abstract

Background
The consent and community engagement process for research with Indigenous communities is rarely evaluated. Research protocols are not always collaborative, inclusive or culturally respectful. If participants do not trust or understand the research, selection bias may occur in recruitment, affecting study results potentially denying participants the opportunity to provide more knowledge and greater understanding about their community. Poorly informed consent can also harm the individual participant and the community as a whole.

Methods
Invited by local Aboriginal community leaders of the Fitzroy Valley, the Kimberley, Western Australia, The Picture Talk project explores the consent process for research. Focus groups of Aboriginal community members were conducted to establish preferences for methods of seeking individual consent. Transcripts were analysed through NVivo10 Qualitative software using grounded theory with inductive and deductive coding. Themes were synthesised with quotes highlighted.

Results
Focus groups with Aboriginal community members (n = 6 focus groups of 3–7 participants) were facilitated by a Community Navigator as a cultural guide and interpreter and a researcher. Participants were recruited from all main language groups of the Fitzroy Valley – Gooniyandi, Walmajarri, Wangkatjungka, Bunuba and Nikinya. Participants were aged ≥18 years, with 5 female groups and one male group. Themes identified include: Reputation and trust is essential; The Community Navigator is key; Pictures give the words meaning – milli milli versus Pictures; Achieving consensus in circles; Signing for consent; and Research is needed in the Valley.

Conclusion
Aboriginal communities of the Fitzroy Valley recommend that researchers collaborate with local leaders, develop trust and foster a good reputation in the community prior to research. Local Aboriginal researchers should be employed to provide cultural guidance throughout the research process and interpret local languages especially for elders. Pictures are preferred to written text to explain research information and most prefer to sign for consent. The Fitzroy Valley welcomes research when collaborative and for the benefit of the community. Future research could include exploring how to support young people, promote health screening and improve understanding of medical knowledge.

Keywords
Research, Consent, Qualitative Methods, Aboriginal, Indigenous, Community, Focus Groups, Pictures, Yarning

Fitzpatrick EFM, Carter M, Oscar J, D’Antoine H, Carter M, Lawford T and Elliott EJ (2019) The picture talk project: Aboriginal community input on consent for research. BMC Medical Ethics (2019) 20:12 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12910-019-0349-y
Publisher (Open Access):  https://bmcmedethics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12910-019-0349-y

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